The only truth that the totalitarian power recognizes is the one needed at the time, and the only freedom that the power recognizes, is that of expressing the "truth". It is in these very powerful words that Vaclav Havel described a characteristic of totalitarian rule in his Political Essays in 1989. According to political scientist Philippe Braud, totalitarianism is a "political situation characterized by questioning the benefit of a leader (Hitler, Stalin?) or organization ('the Party') of all legal protections, institutional or cultural, which normally provide individuals with the benchmarks and anchors necessary for their psychological security.
Thus the subject "Can we compare Nazism and communism?" raises the question of its relevance of these two regimes. In this work, we will examine what the Nazis and Stalinists have enough in common, which allows us to consider a comparison? In the first part, we detail the points of convergence between these two regimes, and in the second part, we explore the antagonism of the two systems. In the third and final part, we will develop the rallying point of those plans in light of the concept of totalitarianism which illuminates the heart of the Nazi and Stalinist system.
Historians agree that the cult of the leader is one of the criteria of totalitarianism. Moreover, evidence of their centrality, the names of charismatic leaders are often used synonymously to refer to totalitarian regimes: Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, etc.. The head of a regime of this type is presented and perceived as being at once "visionary," "infallible," "omniscient," "prophet," "extremely good", or "superman". However, a charismatic leader does not turn into a totalitarian leader with its simple qualities, even if they are unusual. "The example of Mussolini's Italian fascism illustrates how the emergence of what leadership is possible because any criticism, any pluralism have been deleted in totalitarian societies: once, when the plan states that "Mussolini is always right "(semper ragione Mussolini ha), no voice can be heard to challenge that statement.
To say that one is always right (which is a divine quality) without any challenge from already in itself a demonstration of the immense power we have. On the contrary, those who are allowed to speak in fascist society are forced to repeat (the price of speaking) that the chief in fact "always right". In totalitarian societies, public speeches always begin and conclude with a statement of submission and faith in the infallible leader. Thus is established a cult of personality, orchestrated by the Party and political leaders, who often assume delusional proportions. "
Accession to the highest office, the leader of a totalitarian regime is possible only because the site of potentially competing powers has been eliminated before. Thus, the opponents - real or potential - should be deleted and not remain as faithful menial entirely devoted to the head. Therefore, after the takeover, there was a more or less marked elimination of political rivals in Germany.
Tags: totalitarian regime, Italian fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Nazism and communism
[...] The goals are too obvious, and the essential kinship of the two regimes is recognized without reservation. "The first discrepancy is that the Nazi regime" has not had time to develop like the Soviet regime and that the comparison will always be distorted. The second difference is that there is no absorption of civil society by the state in Germany. However, the key difference lies in the ideas that animate these two companies: on the one hand, the "humanitarian ideals" of building a new society and on the other hand the evil will to build a pseudo race." Later, Aron wrote:" Monstrous Hitler and Stalin, one betrayed his ideas by his crimes, and the other applied then Conversely, the German philosopher saw Nazism and Communism as two identical systems meeting the five characteristics described above. [...]
[...] Can we compare Nazism and communism? Table of contents i. Similarities from a formal point of view a. Cult of the leader and use of propaganda b. Mass mobilization and militarization ii. An analytical point of view: the differences a. Radical opposition in the perception of one and the other b. Compared to the past and philosophical parentage iii. [...]
[...] The example of the Stalinist purges is symptomatic in this sense. It had liquidated all its competitors and placed young professionals at high posts which they normally would never have reached, at least so quickly. If there is a clear difference in the way of governing between Stalin and Hitler: the first wrote many texts, gives numerous instructions, and in short, tried to control everything, while in contrast, the second delegated, did not deal much with current affairs and rarely intervened, only to contribute decisive arbitrations. [...]
[...] "This is an inferior race compared to the Germans who are of pure birth," Bismarck had already said. These Germans "were becoming leaders in their dealings with others." He then adds that most studies on totalitarianism wanting to operate a comparison between Nazism and Communism are based on Hannah Arendt and The Origins of Totalitarianism, but ignores the relationship between the philosopher and Nazi imperialism. To illustrate the link, he said: "Need I remind you that by adding a swastika flag in K. [...]
[...] Stalin had executed all those who could boast of belonging to the ruling clique The Nazi and Stalinist regimes agree on another point: each officer leas a forced militarization of their country; parades in the major cities- Nuremberg and Red Square - showing off the power of the army, the exaltation of Army and strength, and the mobilization of the masses and youth. By 1926, the Italian fascist regime implemented the Opera Nazionale Balilla, which aimed to teach young people the worship of the regime and all young people aged 4 to 18 had to incorporate the NOB, the Hitler Youth (Jeunesses Hitler). They also offered military training and ideological scope. From 1938, belonging to the latter became mandatory for all young Germans. [...]
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