In 1763, the Treaty of Versailles ended the Seven Years War between France and Spain against Great Britain. The victory of the latter (gain of French, Canada, of all the territories east of the Mississippi except New Orleans, and with Spanish, Florida) was certainly a matter of immense pride in having overcome the great powers of Europe, but was actually a money pit: a public debt of 130 million pounds.
The city wanted to tax its colonies and therefore imposed the way of participation in a war, an effort by which they benefited greatly. The conflict is therefore primarily a legal step before turning to politics. The history of the American Revolution was the transition from the conventional to claim abstract Liberties Freedom. We will not speak of the 'liberation war', because the term does not apply to the situation. Instead, the English settlers had to preserve and reaffirm their liberties to conquer.
We can group the 13 colonies in four subsets:
New England (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut). The growth rate is highest in the seventeenth, eighteenth and slows down (lower border effect, near the Indian and French).
The middle colonies (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware). Late foundations, but very strong immigration.
Upper South, or Upper South, or Chesapeake (Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina). Foundations of the oldest and strong growth in the eighteenth. Slaves accounted for 40% of the population.
Lower than or south (South Carolina, Georgia). Late Foundation of Georgia (1732). Tremendous growth in the eighteenth, locally 60% black.
These colonies are private initiatives (merchants and gentry).They have long been left to their own mistakes. The city will not find any interest after the restoration. Most will be "royalists" (that is to say, with a governor appointed by the king). Eight colonies are royal (crown): New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina and South Georgia. Two are still corporate colonies, Rhode Island and Connecticut. This is where the degree of autonomy is the strongest, since the actions of their government are immediately applied and are not subject to ratification by the Privy Council. Three are still under ownership (proprietary): Maryland, belonging to the family of Baltimore, Pennsylvania, belonging to the descendants of William Penn, and Delaware.
Three layers of power in the colonies:
Governor: the king's representative there, he held the sovereignty of England in all areas: civil and military government, justice, appoint and dismiss judges and sheriffs, organizes the distribution of land. It is to be appointed by the king, either by the owner or by the Assembly of Corporate. Any decision must be approved locally by the Governor, followed by London (except for the corporate colonies).
The Council composed of a dozen senior figures, who serve as the upper house and court of appeal.
Legislatures (except Pennsylvania), elected by suffrage (three-quarters of male settlers had the right to vote). Reports are often good, with the governor deciding the contributions and requiring their payment. He has the sole responsibility of the Assembly. The governor, dependent on limited resources allocates the royal treasury, and is forced to agree with the Assembly to pass his policies. Growing prestige of these assemblies composed of local political elites influential families.
Tags: Treaty of Versailles, Seven Years War, American Revolution
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