This is a study of the social, political and economic scenario in the U.S. in the crucial period from 1918 to 1945, when it faced new challenges. It gained an important role on the world stage at all levels, but at the same time experienced divisive forces and had to overcome internal contradictions, as a price for its leadership.
An American isolationism?
- There is talk of American isolationism. However, we must not exaggerate the doctrines of Washington (political testament of 1796) and Monroe (1823). The first simply said that the young republic was not to make treaties with the European colonial powers under penalty of being a subsidary. The second doctrine was formulated at a time when some Latin American countries had finally been freed from the yokel of Spanish colonialism.
- But this is only a facade:
o In 1898, the United States obtained from Spain Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
o Annexation of Hawaii the same year.
o Occupation of Samoa in 1900.
o Intervention in Panama In 1903
o hostility towards the "break up of China."
o various interventions under the policy of the "big stick".
- The choice of neutrality in 1914 has several origins:
o A default choice, because of the military unpreparedness of the country (in 1914 as in 1939).
o Lack of knowledge of European realities, distant both geographically and psychologically.
o Presence of 6.5 million German-Americans, and a total of 26.5 million "hyphenated Americans".
o War that does not fit the pattern of Manichean "good" confronting "evil".
o Wilson prefers to play the role of arbiter in time and ask the United States for a model of peaceful idealism.
It is certain that the United States responded to the mission set by the divine will, to serve as a model for other nations, and must keep clear of hatred and passions that agitate the Old World.
o Wilson was elected in 1916 on the theme of peace, and his slogan: Keep us out of war!
- President Wilson's message to Congress on August 18, 1914: "the people of the United States is composed of elements from many nations, and especially of nations at war. It is natural and inevitable that he feels sympathy and desires peace with respect to the outcome of the war. But the divisions among us would be fatal to the peace of our minds and we could seriously hinder the fulfillment of duty as one great nation left in peace, the only people who stand ready to mediate impartially ".
The entry into the war:
- The grounds for entry into the war are ethical and moral.
- The sinking of the Lusitania (May 1915, 1,200 victims, including 128 Americans) will act as a catalyst, but Wilson had already understood that whatever the outcome of the war, the interests of the United States will not be saved of it is not involved. He does not want the world to be cut into rival spheres of influence, he wanted a world order based on law. This will require that the country be at the table of the Peace Conference to intervene.
Tags: American entry into war, Monroe Doctrine, sinking of the Lusitania
[...] The army practiced segregation of units and the black units whose courageous was little known, were confined to menial tasks. Wilson, of Southern origin, was completely disinterested in the question. Nativism and quotas : - Fear about immigration may pervert American values. - This led to the resurgence of the KKK, born in 1865, which surfaced in 1920. - The quota system : In 1921, immigration was limited to during the corresponding 1910 census of the ethnic group. In 1924, the base became the 1890 census, and the rate dropped to 2%. Only people per year could immigrate. [...]
[...] ▪ Start of the " policy of public works The Roosevelt diplomacy : - FDR always made sure not to get involved in European conflicts. - He ended the Dollar Diplomacy. - In 1936 the conference is held in London. FDR had the opportunity to " save "Europe's financial crisis. He refused to stabilize the dollar, lowering its protectionism and reduce debts. He did quite the opposite, plunging Europe into crisis. In other words, he opted for the "America First" policy: o Concessions had ruined the cohesion of the broader electoral coalescing. o America must act according to its designs. [...]
[...] The United States could not export and more, and the fall in U.S. exports sounded on all sectors of the national economy. It had come a full circle, and now the crisis was feeding on itself. The responses to the crisis : - Hoover wanted to restore confidence, because " prosperity is around the corner , "He said. But his strategy is insufficient (D. Artaud : It remained " midstream : o We talk about "Hooverville" and "Hoover depression". o It performed no social action o No long-term program is in place , Nothing specific actions. [...]
[...] The war is contagious, whether declared or not What is meant by " positive engagement " ? o Note that this procrastination suggested to France and Britain that the United States would not be a reliable partner for a future war. Hitler also relied on the U.S. non-intervention to achieve his Anschluss. - He wanted " the arsenal of democracy " : o The March "Lend-Lease"(Lend-lease) law of 1941 provides the possibility of selling equipment to any country whose defense seems vital to the United States. [...]
[...] The power of the anti-alcohol lobby resulting in the prohibition in 1920 is to be understood in this sense. - Wilson opted for conscription. All men from 17 to 31 years had to be enrolled. There were some desertions, as well a boom in marriages to avoid conscription (reserved for singles). - State intervention led to higher public spending and therefore the tax burden : It increased the tax burden of the income tax payer. War profits were taxed at 100% Note that the intervention did not end with the war : Cf. [...]
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