Culture analysis, Japan, collectivism, individualism, universalism, particularism
I chose Japan because it is the most exotic and culturally different from France. Therefore, I find it really fascinating to learn more about this incredible distinct island of culture!
Japan could appear as an excentric, colourful and strange culture but also complex and confusing in terms of etiquettes, business practices and customs.
First of all, let's have an historical perspective. The Edo era (period between 1603 and 1868) was characterised by relative peace, economic growth, social order. However, and during that time, isolationist foreign policies were put in place because the emperors were suspicious of foreigners.
[...] Relationships are more important than relationships in Japan. Japan is a high-context culture, which is why the Japanese are traditionally considered to be relationship oriented. In addition, the results show that Japanese employees are more relationship oriented but also score moderately high on task orientation. Relevant to the topic of relationships in Japan: Japanese workers are often expected to party with their colleagues after working hours. It is therefore not uncommon to see employees drinking and meeting each other after work. [...]
[...] Sadly, inequalities are also reflected in the salaries in Japan. Women are generally paid less than men. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2019/07/04/commentary/japan-comment ary/japans- systemic-barriers-gender-equality/#.XpM0L1MzbBI VII. Communication Japanese culture is not a culture of confrontation, but a culture of harmony where one never says ‘no' directly – it seems that there are 16 ways to say ‘no' in Japan –. A ‘no' is translated into rather vague and indirect statements. It is therefore important to rephrase to make sure that you are ‘on the same wavelength' as the person you are talking to. [...]
[...] It describes Japanese management and highly cultural differences. This novel exposes the Japanese system of the world of work, which consists of demanding perfection from employees, but also of ostracizing, but not dismissing, deviant elements. One example – without the abuse suffered by Amélie – is the 'window-corner' Madogiwa, employed for an employee deemed unnecessary who is assigned to an isolated office, ideally near a window, and who is not given any more tasks until he resigns or retires. - Richard Lewis's book: When culture collide, leading across culture.– 2018 – . [...]
[...] You will always end up with a way out, honourable for both parties. Losing face is an offense. Do not raise your voice or show any sign of impatience. Give some silent times to let the other person think. Let the silence speak for you. It's part of a normal rhythm of the conversation. Don't rush the Japanese. Once you've reached an agreement, you can always come back to negotiate if certain terms are not satisfactory. Do not shake hands, do not touch, but bow your back. Always be humble. [...]
[...] A good Team work completed will be more likely to be praised instead of an individual effort in Japan. The author R. Lewis, distinguish the differences among leadership styles in his book When culture Collide, and explains that in Western countries, companies organise themselves around a ‘structured individualism'. On the other hand, Eastern countries focus more on the group. In a nutshell, while individualism and the spirit of self-made man, is popular in Western countries, the culture of the group and the ability to adapt within the group is the most promoted in Japan. [...]
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