Observations look to identify conditions, behaviors, events and processes whereas the survey approach looks to find attitudes, motivations, intentions and expectations. The two can be further separated in that, active participation falls into three categories: the self administered interview also known as questionnaires; the face-to-face interview; and interview by telephone. Observation falls into two categories that contain sub-categories: 1). Nonbehavioral observation includes record analysis, physical condition analysis and physical process analysis; 2.) Behavioral observation includes nonverbal analysis, linguistic analysis, extra linguistic analysis and spatial analysis (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, p. 189).
The advantage of observation is that the researcher contains firsthand knowledge of the condition, behavior, event or process without a filter. Observation can even secure information that most participants may omit due to information being irrelevant.
According to Cooper and Schindler, the disadvantage of this process is that many academics have a limited view of observation, relegating it into a minor technique of field data collection (p. 188). Another limitation is that the observer needs to be at the location in order to observe. This can prove difficult since it is hard to predict when and where an event might occur. This process could be an appropriate method if it is conducted specifically to answer a research question, is systematically planned and executed, uses proper controls, and provides reliable and valid account of what happened (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, p. 188).
[...] It collects all data, even things participants might omit due to their lack of understanding of what is relevant or not. Finally, participants seem to accept observational intrusion better than they respond to questioning” (Cooper & Schindler p. 192). b. Nonverbal, linguistic and extra linguistic analysis. Nonverbal, linguistic and extra linguistic analysis falls into the category of behavioral observation. “Nonverbal behavior is the most prevalent of these and includes body movement, motor expressions, and even exchanged glances” (Cooper & Schindler p. [...]
[...] What research process decisions were made? (Remember to include research by outside suppliers.) Ramada Franchise Systems (RFS) researched other companies known for their customer service, and low employee turnover. RFS also used the results of the Shifflet's survey to determine where research was necessary given the low customer satisfaction results of the survey at comparable competitors. From these results, face-to-face interaction with both property management and employees was implemented to get first hand information to understand how to better customer service, motivate employees and increase longevity of employment. [...]
[...] Why was this appropriate for this study? Researchers spanned out to all 900 properties to use the sampling methodology of face-to-face. This was appropriate for the researchers to learn by both verbal answers and physical interaction what would make the process better for property owners/manager as well as what made the employees f. Describe the research design and discuss its strengths and weaknesses. The research design was set up to obtain feedback from both property managers and employees for their feedback on the issues at hand. [...]
[...] GPS trackers could be used to determine length and routes of deliveries. Vehicle cameras could be used to determine if the drivers are talking on their cell phones, wearing their seatbelts, even tapping into the vehicle's computer system to see if they stomp on their breaks too hard, swerve out of lane or use their turn signals. To address the ethical concerns, stickers could be used to alert the drivers that their vehicles are being monitored. Of course this type of observation would have to occur over time however it is easily resolvable and requires very little work on the part of the observer Distinguish between the following: a. [...]
[...] A good case to be made for using observation can be found in the business of logistics, specifically any parcel delivery service. Observation could be used by means of a GPS tracker to see how long certain routes are or if the drivers are taking breaks when they shouldn't be. The GPS tracker could also be a valuable tool in determining and detouring routes due to high traffic congestion, accidents, construction, event red lights What ethical risks are involved in observation? In the use of unobtrusive measures? [...]
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