Primates of the Pan genus belonging to the Hominidae family in the haplorhines that fall under Pan paniscus are commonly known as bonobos, a species that is commonly compared with chimpanzees. Their geographic distribution consists of lowland rainforests and grassland habitats located primarily in central Zaire. Due to their frugivorous diets, bonobos live in fission-fusion parties and are known to forage together in large groups comprised of mixed-sexes in search of food sources that are located in patches.
A distinctive transport mechanism when carrying food items involves bipedal locomotion. This species has a multi-male/multi-female social organization and a slow life history with long intervals between births. Female bonobos are the dispersing sex whereas males are philopatric and remain in their natal groups. In P. paniscus. food availability influences party sizes and, due to high social statuses and strong alliances with the same sex, female members have feeding priorities over males. However, males are also closely associated with females in their community regardless of kinship relations. Recurrent and non-reproductive sexual activities are species-specific characteristics of P. paniscus where females exploit sexual swellings and behaviors for various male benefits such as food or protection. Prior research studies have produced various explanations for the excessive practice of sexual behaviors in bonobos, and I will be constructing a review article on these explanations with respect to primate socioecology.
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