Changing organizational culture, institutional capacity
Change is an integral part of modern life; whether it is exercised within an individual, group or institutional capacity. Change in the context of organization refers to the processes or initiatives that constitute a deviation or adjustment in the way with which operations within an organization are conducted. It, therefore, implies that organizational change management and personal change management are an intertwined discipline. Therefore, is change a one-time, mutually specific event or is it a continuous operative function that constitutes the broad managerial function in the business?
There are usually two types of organizational change: Initiated or planned change and unplanned or reactive change. The first one refers to a situation where there is a deliberate adoption of new processes and methods of operations. In regard to managerial view of planned change, it originates from the individual who has experience in the particular day-to-day operations and, therefore, is the proposer of the change and implementer as well (Hughes, 2006). Unplanned or reactive change is one which occurs spontaneously and which does undergo a conscious and rational process for its implementation.
[...] (1989). Capacity management (APICS South-Western series in production and operations management). South-Western Pub. Burnes, B. (2000). Managing change. Prentice hall. Campbell, D., Edgar, D., & Stonehouse, G. (2011). Business strategy: An introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. Carnall, C. (2007). [...]
[...] Pursuant toKotter and Cohen (2002), the role of technology in transmitting and coordinating the change process is limited to the role of reducing the information bulk, thereby making it easier for leaders to effectively communicate their envisioned change to the effecting team as well as other members of the organization. Both books agree that emotions and perceptions are a significant challenge for management. Kotter and Cohen (2002) identify that these attributes are inextricably connected with regard to performance and that the challenge can effectively be overcome through the first four stages of effective change management. These stages can be separate in themselves or can overlap in this regard so as to allow management to effectively skip one or more. They are: 1. [...]
[...] Kotter and Cohen (2002) take an opposite approach to the cultural significance to organizational efficacy by intimating that it should come last in management of change as well as being cognizance of the emotional effects therein. However, the two books agree on the need to support and reinforce organizational culture for attaining and maintaining a winning team and organization. These include the need for new employee orientation and promotional processes. Empowering action Individual rewards are the most powerful influencer of individual performance. According to Ivancevich et al. (2011), the organization's reward (punishment) system can be used to increase performance of current employees as well as attracting skilled employees into the organization. [...]
[...] Essentially it has led to increased competition between organizations leading to a deeper focus on gaining competitive advantage via three key ways (Burnes, 2000): 1. Being the lowest cost provider 2. Identifying and dominating emergent markets 3. Being an industry leader through innovative and creative products and services Kotter and Cohen (2002) emphasize that an organization builds up on its momentum for change through an initial attack on smaller tasks and gradually ascending to other harder tasks of the change process. Where wins are highly visible, there are lesser arguments amongst organizational members. [...]
[...] (2011). Organizational behavior and management. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Mabey, C., & Mayton-White, B. (1993). Managing change. Sage Publications. [...]
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