With lager multinational organisations' pre-occupation with increasing their profit & market share (Kobrin 1996 cited in Lewis 1997), globalization and internationalization is clearly the next step to achieving these objectives (Brewester 1988 & Guzzo et al. 1994 cited in Brewester 1988). However these new opportunities come at a price; Mendenhall & Oddou (1985 cited in Lewis 1997) states that the last 20 years, there has been a persistent expatriate problem; they return much too early, cutting short their assignments.
According to Lewis (1997) who has reviewed a wide body of literature; most of the reasons given can be narrowed down to the top three difficulties encountered by expatriates, inability of spouse to adjust, inability of the manager to adjust & other family problems (Tung 1993 cited in Lewis 1997, p280). The reasons are commonly attributed to Culture shock (Fiechtinger & Fink 1998). The Culture shock U curve diagram was first introduce by Church (1982 cited in Littrell et al. 2006) with his of adjustment theory or phases of culture shock (Church 1982 cited in Littrell et al. 2006); culture shock is when an individual is exposed for a long period of time (usually 3 months or more) to a different culture from their own (Fiechtinger & Fink 1998). Culture shock could impede on the adjustment & the eventual performance and success of an expatriate's overseas assignment. Fiechtinger & Fink (1998) further believes that culture shock is unavoidable; however some academics believe that the culture shock phases can be shortened.
[...] Offering CCT to all employees and not just reserved to employees being developed for international assignments and current expatriates. Further, be a normal offering in any training and development program of every organisation, and not just MNCs. Table of Contents Introduction With lager multinational organisations' pre-occupation with increasing their profit & market share (Kobrin 1996 cited in Lewis 1997), globalisation and internationalisation is clearly the next step to achieving these objectives (Brewester 1988 & Guzzo et al cited in Brewester 1988). [...]
[...] Stress is another reason given for expatriate failure as Donkin (1995 cited in Lewis 1997) explain; moving house are the found to be the most common source of stress for people, “combine this with moving to a new country” with all that it entails can be quiet traumatic for all involved (p285). Consequently for the spouse, further assistance is required (Lewis 1997). Tung ( cited in Haslberger & Brewster 2008) stressed the impact of expatriate family on the success of overseas assignments. Noticeably, there has to be a relationship between spousal & family adjustment with the expatriate manager adjustment (Takeuchi et al cited in Littrell et at. [...]
[...] Role plays can be a very useful technique when done correctly; it lets the participants experience feelings, challenges their belief system, and make them aware of their own set of values and belief in a safe and controlled environment (Delahaye 2008). In some instances, if CCT budget permits, the expatriate and his family could take a “look-see visit” (Littrell et al p372) for a short time (usually 2 weeks) to experience firsthand what the host country is like. Experiential CCT's focus is on “learning by doing” (Littrell & Salas 2005). [...]
[...] Establishing an Australian manager & his family in Shanghai Executive Summary Moving on closer to the 21st century, have we solved the issues of expatriate failures? This report reviews current literature on this topic and prescribes solutions to this problem. In particular, the report focuses on Cross-Cultural Training an area that has been regarded as a beacon of hope in solving these expatriate problems. The different CCT on offer by multinational companies (MNC) and their impact on expatriate success are discussed in detail in this report. [...]
[...] (2006) prescribes an effective CCT as a solution. Littrell et al. (2006) defines CCT as an educational exercise in providing expatriate managers with the necessary tools to deal with some (if not all) of the situations that the expatriate and his family might face. It is the hope that with an helpful CCT, this will guarantee effectiveness in the expatriate's overseas assignment & translate to success for the MNC (Landis & Brislin 1996; Morris & Robie 2001 cited in Littrell et al. 2006). [...]
using our reader.