Cell Cycle Proteins, Nurse Cell Development, Trichenella spiralis
Trichenella spiralis commonly referred to as pork work is a parasite belonging to the phylum Nematoda, Class Adenophorea and the order Trichocephalida. Despite being the smallest nematode parasite known to man (1-3mm), the Trichenella is among the most prevalent and clinically significant parasite affecting man, pigs, rats and bears (Despommier 1998, p.318). Parasites usually change the morphology of their host in order to create a new hospitable environment. Trichenella is a remarkable parasite as it creates a new architecture through re-modeling of the physiology in the host tissue (Guiliano & Oksov 2009, p.669).
Unlike other nematodes, Trichinellids construct their home in the infected muscle through an intricate sequence of events that change the infected tissue into a structure referred to as a nurse cell. The home created in the muscle tissue takes the form of a capsule made up of cellular components and a collagenous barrier (Jasmer 1990, p.453). The cellular components help the metabolism of the parasites while the collagenous barrier offers protection to the parasite.
[...] Since then, many studies have shown that Trichenella uses the muscle cell repairing process to build the capsule. That is, muscle cells begin the repairing process after the injury caused by parasite invasion same as in any trauma (Jasmer 1993, p.786). The Trichenella parasite appropriates only the first part of this repair process to build its home. Invasion and Remodeling of Muscle Cells The formation of capsules in the muscle cell also known as cytogenesis has been studied in many studies. [...]
[...] Muscle Nerve pp.283-300 Wu, Z., Milosavljenic, L., Nagano, I., & Takahashi, Y Trichinella spiralis: nurse cell formation with emphasis on analogy to muscle cell repair, pp. 15-29. doi: 10.1186 /1756-3305-1-27 Zammit, P.S., Partridge, T.A Yablonka-Reuveni, Z., The skeletal muscle satellite cell: the stem cell that came in from the cold. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 54, pp.1177-1191 Zhou, Z., & Bornemann, A MRF4 protein expression in regenerating rat muscle. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility pp.311-316 Statistical analysis and final report Recording and analysis Cell cycle protein identification at day and 32 Weeks Testing for Cyclin B1 Preparation of muscle specimen Testing for Cyclin E Testing for Cyclin A Testing for Cyclin D3 Statistical Analysis Writing of the results for the final research will be on going throughout the enter study period. [...]
[...] At this period, various genes connected to regulation of cell cycle are present including inhibitor of DNA binding 2 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 4 (CDK4), cyclin D3, cyclin D2, cyclin B2, cyclin retinoblastoma, G0/G1 switch gene and CLU. Different cyclins fix themselves to different CDKs thereby creating different complexes at particular stages of the cell cycle (Charge & Rudnicki 2004, p.221). This thus pushes the cell from a given stage of the cycle to another. The main focus of this study is on these cell cycle proteins that appear during nurse cell development. As pointed out earlier, many studies have been carried out on the subject of nurse cell development as well as capsule formation. [...]
[...] Part of the changing sarcoplasm turn basophilic that peaks at day 14 and finally dissipates. The parasite initiates the process of transformation without any discernible compartmentalization within the fiber. However, after day 10, a double membrane structure can be seen above the parasite's epicuticle. While the hypertrophic nuclei develop, the developing nurse cell starts to obtain several new features. The new features include deviations in metabolic activities for example transition to anaerobic metabolism, increased intake of glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and amplified levels of lysosomal acid phosphates (Zhou & Bornemann 2002, p.312). [...]
[...] 669-688 Jasmer, D.P Trichinella spiralis: altered expression of muscle proteins in trichinosis. Experimental Parasitology pp.452-465 Jasmer, D.P Trichinella spiralis infected skeletal muscle cells arrest in G2/M and cease muscle gene expression. Journal of Cell Biology pp.785-793 Morgan, D.O Cyclin-dependent kinases: engines, clocks, and microprocessors. Annual review of Cell and Developmental Biology pp.261-291 Morgan, J.E., & Partridge, T.A Muscle satellite cells. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology pp.1151-1156 Pines, J Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: the age of crystals. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1332(1), pp.M39-M42 Roberts, L. [...]
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