Hormone, Replacement, therapy, cardiovascular complications
In the past years, the cause of the accelerating deaths emerging from cardiovascular complications in postmenopausal women has caught the medical personnel in a dilemma on ways of redressing the issue. Notably, incidences of reported increase in cardiovascular attacks sharply rise in post menopause stages, drawing closer to the conclusion of the cardio-protective role played by sex hormones whose levels decline as one approach menopause. In response, using hormone therapy treatment (HRT) to replace the waning levels initially was a welcomed break through to minimize further exposure to the risks of contracting heart attacks.
Consequently, prescription of HRT spread widely behind the intuition of alleviating menopausal symptoms while preventing primary and secondary cardiovascular diseases alike. Nevertheless, contradictory results evidently drawn from multiple observational experiments have heightened the skepticism on the HRT prevention capability against reprisal cardiovascular attacks. Recently, the sensitivity of the issue has left the medical experimentation at crossroads regarding decisions touching on the beneficial use of HRT to women with reported incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
[...] Hormone replacement therapy. Durant, OK: Essential Medical Information Systems. Swartz, D. P. (1992). Hormone replacement therapy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. [...]
[...] HORMONAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY What is the evidence? Notably, decreasing HRT use demonstrated no association with changes in hospitalization rates or cardiovascular diseases and acute stroke resulting in death though the 7 decreasing use of HRT was associated with a statistically significant change in the rate of AMI in the general population (Shetty, Vogt, & Bhattacharya, 2009). For instance, the findings revealed a similar pattern of 25 cases compared to the 7 identified in the WHI trials per every 1000. This revealed women predisposed to acute stroke used HRT on believing it was beneficial explaining why the sharp decline in use of HRT affects overall AMI than stroke incidence (Shetty, Vogt, & Bhattacharya, 2009). [...]
[...] D., Vogt, W. B., & Bhattacharya, J. (2009, May). Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Health in the United States. Medicare, 600-606. Meikle, A. W. (1999). Hormone replacement therapy. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press. [...]
[...] Lastly, the visual evidence demonstrating a declining pattern of HRT use and strokes was unreliable since it existed as in unadjusted form, suggesting overreliance on observable study failed to reveal the unobservable factors influencing the usage of HRT and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, the evidence is sufficient since it was obtained from a nationally representative data contrary to other trials based on subpopulations. HORMONAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY Bibliography Botto, N., Maffei, S., Manfredi, S., Colombo, M. G., Mazzone, A. M., & Andreassi, M. G. (2011). Prothrombotic mutations, family history and the risk of thrombosis in 8 postmenopausal women: implications for hormone replacement therapy. Climacteric 25-30. Shetty, K. [...]
[...] What are the reasons? As revealed from the study, decreasing use of HRT changed significantly with Acute Myocardial Infarctions (AMI) in tandem with the WHI trial findings. However, declining application of HRT did not translate into significant change in reported stroke cases as those predisposed to stroke used HRT never believing it was unbeneficial in stroke (Shetty, Vogt, & Bhattacharya, 2009). Another evident issue is that the findings of the study demonstrated some drift from other results attained in previous studies as they focused on subpopulations while a nationally representative data was used in this observational study. [...]
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