People are becoming increasingly interested in disease prevention rather than cure the disease and holistic approaches to promote health, such as eating nutritionally diet, maintaining fitness, etc… Interest in ‘natural and nutritional' treatments and products therefore continues to grow, and food is the most interested product. Honestly, all foods are functional and each of them has their own specific function to provide nutrition and energies necessary for our survival. But some foods do more than just provide energy. These foods are called “functional food”.
1. What are functional foods and its typical ingredients?
2.1 What is functional food?
Functional food was first introduced in the name “Foods for Specified Health Use” (FOSHU) in 1980s, Japan. (G. William et al 2009) On March 15-17, 2011, Functional Food center in the Series: Functional Foods in the Prevention and Management of Chronic Diseases at the University of Nevada - Las Vegas at the 9th International Conference “Functional Foods components in Health and Disease” has adopted a new full definition of functional food as below:
“Functional food is a natural or processed food that naturally contains or be added known biologically-active compounds with defined quantitative and qualitative amounts provides a clinically proven and documented health benefit beyond the basic nutrition in the modern age.”
[...] Egger et al (1997) “Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.” BMJ. 1997;315:629–34. M.J. Tikkanen et al (2001) “Effect of a diet based on low-fat foods enriched with nonesterified plant sterols and mineral nutrients on serum cholesterol.” Am J Cardiol 2001; 88(10):1157–62. M.H. Davidson et al (2001) “Safety and tolerability of esterified phytosterols administered in reduced-fat spread and salad dressing to healthy adult men and women.” J Am Coll Nutr. 2001; 20:307–19. O. A. Matvienko et al (2002) single daily dose of soybean phytosterols in ground beef decreases serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in young, mildly hypercholesterolemic men.” Am J Clin Nutr. [...]
[...] This is quite high when compare to the minimum reducing level, - 0.313 mmol/L [ 0.107 ] for more than 2.5 g daily intake while the two remained reducing level did not have so much difference from each other. The reducing LDL effect is also depended on which type of sources intake. While the Stanol-used and Sterol-used have the reducing level quite similar, the treatment effect of the mixture of them may not as good as the effect that each of them provided lonely Publication Bias: Meta-analyses are subject to bias for many of reasons, including publication bias. [...]
[...] Based on the criteria list, all studies were screened and selected for potential relevant abstract. In this protocol, studies for meta-analysis about the effect of plant sterols and stanols on LDL cholesterol concentration were identified through a series of steps: After the first step, there were total 35 studies Quality Assessment: Once the selected studies were set, they must be checked up through Quality Assessment. The quality checking may help to qualify the studies potentially. At this stage, if a study has been published as an abstract only, it will be better to try to contact the authors of studies to collect the missing information. [...]
[...] Thompson & M. Manore (2007) “Nutrition for Pearson Education Inc., USA, Chapter pp 2-26 K.C. Maki et al (2001) “Lipid responses to plant-sterol-enriched reduced- fat spreads incorporated into a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:33–43. K.C. Maki et al (2011) “Lipid-altering effects of a dietary supplement tablet containing free plant sterols and stanols in men and women with primary hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.” Int J Food Sci Nutr Jun;63(4):476-82. doi: 10.3109 / L. [...]
[...] Data analysis: There are two models for meta-analysis. Fixed-effect model that assume all of the variability between effect sizes is due to sampling error alone and the true effect is shared by all studies. The second one is random-effect model which is more prevalent in meta-analysis. Under the random-effects model, the true effect could vary from study to study. The studies included in the meta-analysis are assumed to be a random sample of the relevant distribution of effects, and the combined effect estimates the mean effect in this distribution. [...]
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