Injuries and age lead to progressive declines in muscular strength and lean muscle mass. Evidence exists that age-related and injury related declines in muscular strength and lean mass (Feigenbaum & Pollock, 1999) can be impeded following mechanical stress on the body resulting in the form of resistance training. Recommendations made by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regarding the importance of resistance training (Kenney, 1995), has resulted in health professionals more frequently prescribing resistance training for adults as a component of overall wellness and fitness program. People with injuries are also prescribed resistance training, to return them to their pre-injury status.
Resistance training is beneficial for people in all walks of life, from children to adults. A goal of resistance training is to increase muscular strength, and currently the method being employed is joint over-load. The current method tends to increase isokinetic muscular strength over a 6-8 week period and accounts for muscle hypertrophy and joint overload. Novice lifters tend to use muscle over-load as the only form of increasing strength. However, this method does not account for increased load on the proprioceptory response, which has shown to increase isokinetic strength.
[...] Data Analysis This is a quantitative study with pre-test and post-test data collected for 1 variable. This study will utilize a one-way between subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If a post-hoc test is necessary, a relatively liberal post-hoc such as the Sheffe test will be used. Bibliography 1. Ambrose, T.L., Taunton, J.E., MacIntyre, D., McConkey, P., & Khan, M.N. (2003). The effects of proprioceptive or strength training on the neuromuscular function of the ACL reconstructed knee: a randomized clinical trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 115- Baechle, T.R., & Earle, R.W. [...]
[...] Therefore, to conduct 1-RM tests in a safe environment it is best to conduct RTF tests. (Wood et al., 2002) Once a RTF has been conducted one must then determine whether closing ones eyes results in some change in one's body, and how this might affect strength. It is noted in several journal articles, that when the eyes are closed, the body relies on increased proprioceptory responses to balance itself. (Beaubaton & Hay, 1986; ElKahky et al, 2000; Hirata & Yoshida, 2000; Lord & Menz, 2000) However, most of the research has been conducted on lower extremities. [...]
[...] Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Mayhew, J.L., Ball, T.E., Arnold, M.d., & Bowen, J.C. (1995) Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench strength in men of different training levels. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 108- Mittelstaedy, H. (1997). Interaction of eye-, head-, and trunk-bound information in spatial perception and control. Journal of Vestibular Research 283- Pratt, J., & Abrams, R.A. (1996). Practice and component sub- movements: the roles of programming and feedback in rapid aimed limb movements. Journal of Motor Behavior 149- Sainburg, R.L., Ghilardi, M.F., Poizner, H., & Ghez, C. (1995). [...]
[...] (Ed.). (2000). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. (2nd Ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics Beaubaton, D., & Hay, L. (1986). Contribution of visual information to feedforward and feedback process in rapid pointing movements. Human Movement Science 19- El-Kahky, A.M., Kingma, H. Dolmans, M. & De Jong, I. (2000). [...]
[...] The subjects will also be screened for performance enhancing substances and those using performance enhancing substances will not be included in the study. No pilot study will be conducted prior to this study. A 1RM will be calculated for the subjects prior to the administration of the treatment. A 5 repetition max will be collected and a 1RM will be calculated. After calculating the 1RM, the subjects will be randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group will have 6 female and 6 male subjects. [...]
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