Nurses - Job satisfaction - Meta-analysis
Job satisfaction in nursing poses a critical challenge to healthcare institutions since the cost of labor is high, and shortages are common. The supplies are not sufficient to meet the requirements as the nurses' demands increase. As projected by the Bureau of Labor statistics (2005), additional jobs of about 703,000 would be put into place for registered nurses between 2004 and 2014, which is above the number of those already employed by 29%. As the kid boomers start to go home, a shortfall of nurses estimated to be approximately 400,000 to take care of the population comes up. There are several items that contribute to job satisfaction and retention of nurses identified to relate in several job satisfaction theories, instruments and conceptual models (Best & Thurston, 2004). The correlations between job satisfaction and the related factors vary from study to study, and the individual study results appear conflicting with each other. This is because the recent research analysis conducted on nursing job satisfaction was done about ten years ago while tremendous changes has been experienced in the healthcare industry. The meta-analysis study conducted was to provide a better understanding to the factors that associate with job position satisfaction effectiveness.
Meta-analysis is a statistical method that allows the synthesis of the findings of quantitative research to advance the development of theory and knowledge, patient care guide and policy development (Anderson & Beck, 2003). The meta-analysis identifies the relationships of the specified job satisfaction variables across studies that are likely to offer a better estimation of population than any single study (Cooper & Hedges, 1994).
[...] (Eds.), (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Rosenthal, R. (1984). Meta-analysis procedures for social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Thurston, N. E., & Best, M. F. (2004). Measuring nurses' job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration 283–290. [...]
[...] (1999). Comprehensive meta-analysis: A computer program for research synthesis. Englewood, NJ: Biostatics. Conn, V. S. Cooper, H. M. Rantz, M. J., & Valentine, J. C. (2003). Grey literature in meta-analyses. Nursing Research 256–261. Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. [...]
[...] However, the findings can be helpful for inpatient and outpatient nurse practitioners, nurse educators preparing clinical experiences for nursing students and nurse leaders interested in improving the working environment of nurses. The meta- analysis may have been restrictive in its inclusion criteria, but the sample included a wide group of nurses from various settings and countries that made it potentially applicable to a wider population. Bibliography Anderson, E. H., & Beck, C. T. (2003). Facilitating Meta-analysis in nursing. [Editorial] Nursing Research Borenstein, M., & Rothstein, H. [...]
[...] A software package of Comprehensive Meta-Analysis was used to conduct the data analysis (Borenstein & Rothstein, 1999). The correlations between job satisfaction and other associated constructs were extracted from the studies and analyzed using the Z and Q-statistics for the relationship. Fisher's r-to-z transformation produced the normalized distributions and stabilized variances. A mean z-value, weighted by the sample size, was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Q-statistic determined if the dispersion sizes of effect around the mean were greater than the expected from sampling error. [...]
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