Socialism , Utopian socialism , Karl Marx , Friedrich Engels
The socialist thought, in its origins, linked to the ideas and proposals for social reform Robert Ower, Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier; aims a society where there is no private ownership of the means of production and it eliminates the differences between social classes and plans the economy, with a rational and fair distribution of wealth.
Socialism is a typical Industrial post-revolution movement, linking the first manifestations of the working class against the social injustices of the capitalist mode of production.
This thought was called Utopian socialism by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who differentiate socialism beginning to dominate communists and founders of Scientific Socialism: defending the revolutionary action of the workers, bonded by means of the Socialist International (1864), in which various ideological currents participated and fought intense debates between supporters of Marx and Joseph Proudhon, contrary to the policies and actions which proposed a change in the society through the creation of production cooperatives generated by workers.
[...] These studies had been ignored until Marx gives a new beginning, where the value of a product or service does not correspond to his work, but, utility and satisfaction of the last unit purchased, then it appears the principle of marginal utility ( marginalism). Where covers different ideas of the classical school of theory, that is, beyond the deductive method (doctrinal theories), begins to be added inductive study, using mathematical and statistical calculations. According to Daniel R. Fusfeld, in "The era of the economist", "three fundamental ideas were established as elements - keys of neoclassical economics or marginal. [...]
[...] Atlas ROSSETTI. Introduction to Economics. 20th edition. Ed. Atlas. 2003. [...]
[...] " The conclusion reached is that a free market system tended to maximize individual benefits. The neoclassical school or marginality . ) is postulated perfect competition and the lack of economic crises, admitted attached as accidents or consequences of errors." (Paul Sandroni, economics dictionary.) After the 1929 crisis, the concepts of neoclassicism are discovered by Keynes and develops a macroeconomics and begins to study the concept of balance of underemployment, although there are some objections against this theory. Bibliography SANDRONI, Paul. [...]
[...] Dictionary of Economics of the century. XXI. Ed.Record FUSFELD, Daniel R. The era of the Economist. Ed. Saraiva Beans, Ricardo. History of Economic Thought. Ed. [...]
[...] Marxism Title to the theoretical work of Marx and Engels, which is the ideological foundation of modern communism. Is a set of economic theories (the added value), philosophical (dialectical materialism), social (historical materialism) and policies, developed from the philosophy of Hengel, the French philosophical materialism of the eighteenth century and the English economic policy early nineteenth century. The work "Capital", Marx, changed the political economy of course, with the exposure of surplus value theory as surplus labor, unpaid source of profit, interest and income. [...]
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