Contemporary delinquency theories can be deployed in supporting economic deprivation as a contributing factor in elucidating many crimes, though it is directly linked to property crimes like theft (Borraz & González, 2011). However, this does not imply that the cause-and-effect association exists. This is because many lower-class citizens do not choose to engage in crime. According to Fajnzylber, Lederman, & Loayza (2002), theorists frequently consider other aspects of social disorganization, which are available in areas where poverty is absent. Such aspects of social disorganizations include poor housing, single-family homes, unemployment, lack of housing, and the absence of other community and social controls (Finklea, 2011). It would be impossible, if not difficult; to distinguish the aspects and evaluate how each of them solely affects the crime rates (Gould, Weinberg, & Mustard, 2002). In this regard, this research paper discusses the various socio-economic factors influencing delinquency.
According to early theories of sociology, people have a free will to engage in or avoid criminal behaviors (Imrohoroglu, Merlo, & Rupert, 2000). The rational choice theory draws from classical criminology in which people weigh the risks and benefits of engaging in crime. Kelly (2000) described the evolution to a large organic society as resulting in societal or anomie strain. This can be associated with the conflict perception of crime, in which the haves have written the law to safeguard themselves from the have-nots. Similarly, street offenses are accorded greater sentences than the crimes in the suites (Raphael & Winter-Ebmer, 2001). The poor are often sentenced harshly, whereas the rich are sentenced leniently for crimes that are even more serious. This "interactionist" perception of crime implies that crime and deviance are described based on those in power. It also implies that crime is given a meaning by the manner in which people respond to it (Verdier & Zenou, 2001).
[...] Social disorganization and crimes are perceived to derive from unemployment, population density, low collective efficacy and poverty. People in the community are responsible for determining what their values are and what they want. Social norms or influence shapes the behavior of people in the community (Gould, Weinberg, & Mustard, 2002). According to the broken windows theory, urban deterioration is the main cause of crime. In fact, it is the supporting case for the adoption of community policing. Via community policing, law enforcement efforts are directed and strengthened at target areas. [...]
[...] Some of the social ecological conditions that increase the rates of crime include low income, poor housing, transient residents' lack of social control and lack of social organization. Most recent studies on social disorganization still point out that social disorganization results in delinquency due to the weakened social control. According to Borraz & González (2011), social control is a key remedy for social disorganization and can be attained through cleaning the neighborhoods, establishing crime watch groups, establishing agencies to assist people, disciplining in or out of the home and other optional punishment to imprisonment. The broken windows theory also describes the socioeconomic influences on delinquency (Pager, 2003). [...]
[...] It results in secondary crime, where a person commits activities that are more criminal in order to keep their assigned criminal label. Pragmatic evidence points out those labeling influences the behavior of an offender. However, the possibility of a criminal to re- offend can be the result of the limitation put on the criminal's life by having a conviction on his record. In order to correct labeling, a supportive or a positive approach can be used to de-emphasize the criminal element and stigma, such as calling convicts offenders. [...]
[...] Physical and social environment influence the behavior of an individual. Urbanization is perceived as the major source of crime because the people who moved into the city were more than the number of jobs in the city. Large number of jobless individuals became a burden and resulted in the creation of social work organizations, which needed to support them. An individual might learn something by watching others or television. If a person, especially a child, resides in a neighborhood with high crime rates, he or she is vulnerable to acting out similar behavior he or she witnesses daily. [...]
[...] Criminology and Criminal Justice 55-81. Neumayer, E. (2003). Good policy can lower violent crime: evidence from a cross national panel of homicide rates, 1980-97. Journal of Peace Research 619-640. Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology 937-975. Raphael, S., & Winter-Ebmer, R. (2001). Identifying the eﬀect of unemployment on crime. [...]
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