Sectarianism, freedom of religion, Establishment
As for the US, they apply a formal separation church / state. This design is not based on secularism, but on the absolute freedom of religion.
According to the First Amendment to the Constitution, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment or prohibit the free exercise of religion .
Two clauses are present in the amendment. The non-establishment Establishment clause that prohibits state religion and leads to a separation of church and state (not like in the ECHR).
This clause requires the State absolute neutrality, characterized by the equality of all religions and the absolute prohibition of state aid to religion.
[...] It takes an idea of "compelling state." The Court E.D.H. refuses to assimilate religious freedom with liberty. The interest of the State bonus interest of the individual. The struggle against sectarianism: The review exercised by the Court: Difficult distinction between sect and religion: The term "cult" appears in 1250 and means "an organized group of people who have the same doctrine within a religion." No, the sect is not a religious order. She can give birth to Protestantism, Lutheranism and Calvinism. It may, on the other, disappear. [...]
[...] The same observation can be made of Buddhism as a detached sect of Hinduism. Vivien The 1983 report identified 116 hate groups in France. In 1995, the Guest-Guyard report counts 172 mothers sects and 800 satellites. Jehovah's Witnesses gather 130,000 members counted about 160,000. Professor Paul Valette makes a classification of certain sects. The Raelian Movement, for example, promotes the spread of alien messages. Rael is a prophet of a religion "atheist". The human being is a creator god. Qaunt Adventists, Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, they defend the recognition of the value of the Bible and waiting for the end of time. [...]
[...] The kirpan and Succot are allowed. The "exception" American: As for the US, they apply a formal separation church / state. This design is not based on secularism, but on the absolute freedom of religion. According to the First Amendment to the Constitution, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment or prohibit the free exercise of religion ( . Two clauses are present in the amendment. The non-establishment Establishment clause that prohibits state religion and leads to a separation of church and state (not like in the ECHR). [...]
[...] The struggle against sectarianism Human rights are linked to modernity and Muslim states do not reject the idea. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights was considered by the Muslim States, incompatible with Islamic precepts. Article 18 of the Universal Declaration proclaims the right to change religion. Now this is quite contrary to the Muslim religion. However, Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights defends freedom of thought, conscience and religion do not mention. According to Abu-Sahlieh, Muslim states believe that "the United Nations in its structure serves as an instrument to maintain the hegemony of the great powers at the expense of respect for human rights." The necessary comparison with a different model: Why, in the US, a different model is applied and seems quite effective? [...]
[...] Finally, Elisabeth Zoller one last question arises: "The European states they will one day the situation of the United States? " Proposals are made for alignment of the two models studied. It would disestablish the established churches as the state religion as in England and Greece. It would, on the other hand, preferred to withdraw their religions benefits in states that have chosen institutionalized cooperation between the state and churches and Germany. European states should lose interest in religion. Is it possible? [...]
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