When we speak about Kashmir, we think at first of this multitude of conflicts which concerns the history of this country. This territory situated in South Asia is a junction point of India, Pakistan and China. It always generated enormous desire. Without dwell upon the long lineage of dynasties which alternately take possession of the territory, we can give for example one of the last belonging of the Kashmir. Up to 1846, Kashmir belonged to the Sikh Empire, but they were beaten by the English, who sold this territory to Gulab Singh de Jammu. The sale of Kashmir by the English people was made for the 7.5 million rupee, made official in the "Treaty of Amritsar" which clarifies the statute of principality independent of this territory. Gulab Singh proclaimed himself as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. It followed a policy of repression which wanted to impose the Hinduism whereas 94% of the population is Muslims.
[...] - Jacobsen Kurt, Khan Sayeed Hasan, L'Inde à la recherche de la puissance Le Monde Diplomatique, juillet 2002. - Chipaux Françoise, Un dialogue prometteur s'est noué entre l'Inde et le Pakistan Le Monde du 8 Janvier 2004. - Epstein Marc, Le pari risqué de l'Inde L'Express du 13 Juin 2002. - L'inde et le Pakistan ont repris leurs pourparlers de paix, Le Monde 2006. - Christine Chaumeau, Le Cachemire au cœur des attentats, Courrier International janvier 2007 - Bernard J. [...]
[...] Indeed, we can underline the influence of the Cold war on the Kashmir conflict. During the intensification of the Cold war, Nehru, the Indian Prime Minister, proposes a policy of neutrality vis-à-vis to the two blocks. Originally favorable to the west, India will affirm itself and turn to the Soviet block. In the year 1953, American sells weapons to the Pakistan. In response, India becomes allied in the USSR. China attacks India with the aim of humiliate the ally of the USSR but also solving border problems resulting from the British colonization. [...]
[...] The sale of Kashmir by the English people was made for the 7.5 million rupee, made official in the “Treaty of Amritsar” which clarifies the statute of principality independent of this territory. Gulab Singh proclaimed himself as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. It followed a policy of repression which wanted to impose the Hinduism whereas 94% of the population is Muslims. It forms little by little movements of resistance. Gulab Singh died in 1857 and will be replaced successively by Rambir Singh up to 1885, Partab Singh up to 1925 and Hari Singh up to 1949. [...]
[...] The Kashmir is a reason for conflict which covers a double significance. On its territory are the most sacred places of the Hindu religion which are very important for India but it is important not to forget that the majority of the population are Moslem and that logically this territory should return to Pakistan. The Moslems look for the annexation of the Indian Kashmir in Pakistan while India insists on its sovereignty on the territory. Following the first conflict between these two countries, the Kashmir will be divided into two: a third party for Pakistan and two thirds for India. [...]
[...] And this will contribute in an important proportion for the development of the Pakistani military program. 1970s are marked by two significant facts. On one hand, the United States have for politics to bring both opponents to cooperate and one the other hand, the Kashmir conflict of 1971 sign an important defeat for Pakistan. Supported by India, Bangladesh obtains its independence at the conclusion of the defeat of Pakistan. However, we should not forget the controversy role of the United States. [...]
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