Vietnam was part of the French colonial empire since the late 1850s. During World War II, the French were defeated by the Germans and the Japanese invaded Vietnam. As a consequence, the French and Japanese forces were forced to cooperate in order to rule Vietnam. The Japanese evicted the French in 1945 and started to rule Vietnam alone. A deep famine occurred in 1944 and 1945, urging the population to rebel following the Viet Minh Movement (a league for independence led by Ho Chi Minh). In August 1945, the Japanese were defeated by the Viet Minh. At the end of World War II, the Viet Minh claimed the independence of Vietnam. Nevertheless, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union considered that Vietnam belonged to France. In March 1946, Vietnam is recognized as free within the French Union. But when the French army landed near Hanoi, a guerilla war began, the First Vietnam war. The French were defeated and left Vietnam in 1954 and Vietnam was divided into two parts along the 17th parallel: a communist part (North Vietnam led by the Viet Cong) and a non-communist part (South Vietnam led by Ngo Dinh Diem).
South Vietnam was supported by the American and North Vietnam by the other communist countries. Thus a war exploded in 1965 between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. In a first part we will focus on the reasons of the American involvement in the Vietnam war, then we will see the end of the war and in the last part we will see the social and economical consequences of the war.
[...] The economic effects of the war The war was very expensive. By the early 1970s, the unemployment rate was around and inflation was 11%. It impaired the American economic growth. The United States at that time was experiencing the Great Society program inspired by Lyndon B. Johnson which implies a rich society and a poor minority. It was an expensive program. The great society of Johnson indicated a program and a set of measures in social politics. This policy continues the new border of John Fitzgerald Kennedy which fails. [...]
[...] The end of the American involvement in the Vietnam war A. The Tet offensive as a turning point (1968) The Americans didn't managed to win a relevant victory during the Vietnam war. The Tet offensive is a Vietcong offensive in which they intend to encircle the American army in order to destroy their strongholds. The offensive was led by the National Liberation Forces. It was a Vietcong failure as the American beat them. Thus, it was a military success. Yet, it was seen by the Americans as a psychological failure for three reasons: - The attack was unexpected (they thought that the Vietcong couldn't launch an attack) - The American thought it was not possible to go through their lines - The American were surprised by the Vietcong supplies. [...]
[...] They did the “Ho Chi Minh trail” which started in the North and finished in the South. It brought 60 tons of aid a day and 20000 soldiers a month. The American were prepared for a conventional war, and thus to inflict 1 dollar damage to the Viet Cong cost 10 dollars. The American resorted to the famous Search and Destroy program that is to say find and kill the Viet Cong's army. The Green Berets (also named The United States Army Special Forces) have been created during the Vietnam War, in www.oboolo.com 1952. [...]
[...] The doctrine Truman (or policy of containment) appeared on March 12th it was at the root of the American policy against the Communist Bloc during the cold war. This doctrine aimed, for the Americans, at offering a military and financial assistance to countries decided to oppose to the communist pressures. This doctrine marked the real beginning of the arm-wrestling of the United States during the cold war against the communism. The end of the Vietnam war is an important stage in the end of the Cold war. [...]
[...] www.oboolo.com Vietnam war: US involvement in Vietnam (1965-1975) Vietnam was part of the French colonial empire since the late 1850s. During World War II, the French were defeated by the Germans and the Japanese invaded Vietnam. As a consequence, the French and Japanese forces were forced to cooperate in order to rule Vietnam. The Japanese evicted the French in 1945 and started to rule Vietnam alone. A deep famine occurred in 1944 and 1945, urging the population to rebel following the Viet Minh Movement league for independence led by Ho Chi Minh). [...]
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