The aim of this essay is to create a body of knowledge for a follow-on research on the patterns of emergent reading and writing in young children in relation to the underpinning philosophies of two different instructional approaches - the Phonics approach and the Whole Language approach. For this purpose, information was gathered through the detailed evaluation of children's work, as well as through the study and analysis of materials presented in books, research journals and professional publications, so as to compare main concepts of the emergent literacy in children, to identify negative and positive features of the two approaches, and to translate the latter into a form of practical classroom activities.
[...] The emphasis should be laid on the teachers' ability to critically evaluate the existing strategies, to develop new effective ways of teaching and to apply those in the classroom with regard of differentiation: difference between good and bad reading teachers is usually not to do with their allegiance to some particular method, but to do with their relationships with children and their sensitivity in matching what they do to each individual child's learning needs” (Harrison, Coles, 1992: viii). Conclusion Following the research findings, a number of activities can be suggested for developing children's reading and writing skills in a Whole Language classroom. [...]
[...] In his writing Child D pays much closer attention to individual letters and their associated sounds: in most cases letters are chosen purely on the basis of sound without regard to conventional letter patterns. Finally, in Sample 5 child's clear awareness of many patterns and rules of the English language is apparent. During the writing activity Child E demonstrated the ability to recognize when a word does not look right and to think of alternative spelling, which a characteristic feature of independent spelling. [...]
[...] (1998) Teaching Reading in the Early Years, London: Paul Chapman Eльконин, Д. (1973) Изучение Поведения и Процессов Чтения и Письма, Москва: Просвещение Goodman, K. (1968). The Psycholinguistic Nature of the Reading Process. New York: University Press. Goodman K. (2005) What's Whole in the Whole Language? Portsmouth: Heinemann Educational Harris, T., Hodges, R. (Eds.) (1995)The Literacy Dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing. Newark: International Reading Association Harrison, C., Coles, M. (eds.)(1992) The Reading for Real Handbook, London: Routledge Monaghan, J. [...]
[...] Both Sample 1 and Sample 2 exemplify types “Role Play Writing”, which is described in “Overview of Writing Developments Continuum” as a phase when children experiment with marks on paper with the intention of communicating a message or emulating adult writing.” Sample 3 years 4 months) belongs to the beginning of the next phase in writing development, defined in the “Overview” as “Experimental Writing.” The analysis of the child's (later referred to as Child writing demonstrates that Child C is reasonably aware of a sound-symbol correspondence (uses “semi-phonetic spelling”). [...]
[...] “These concepts give children the motivation to attend to small and abstract parts of writing letters and to the spoken sounds associated with letters” (Morris, 2002). Observing and evaluating children's written work on different stages of development help teachers to identify how much early learners know about the conventions of reading and writing. Sample 1 years 11 months) presents an example of emergent writing defined as phase that places a clear emphasis on the process by which children investigate and exploit the possibilities of writing” (Whitehead, 1990: 147). [...]
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