Korsakoff's syndrome is a disorder caused by a severe thiamine, or vitamin B1, deficiency. Recent reports suggest that in the UK alone, roughly 700,000 residents suffer from some sort of amnestic disorder or dementia, with 10 to 24 % of those cases caused by alcohol related brain damage (Kopelman et al., 2009).
Identified by psychiatrist Korsakoff in the 1880s, Korsakoff's Syndrome was immediately noted to occur primarily in chronic alcoholics, who gave the distinct impression of clear consciousness despite characteristic memory disturbances (Kopelman et al., 2009). A similar host of symptoms was described less than 5 years previously by contemporary Wernicke, who noted similar symptoms in acute thiamine deficiency (Thomson and Marshall, 2006). Thus while not technically correct, the terminology is often times used interchangeably by physicians, and the chronic syndrome is now known by several names including Wernicke's Encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome/Encephalopathy, Korsakoff's Syndrome, or Alcohol Amnestic Disorder.
[...] C was willing and co-operative. His psychiatrist felt that his memory problems warranted further investigation. Materials and Implementation: The diagnosis of Korsakoff's Syndrome is a differential one, in which a physician systematically rules out other possibly sources of amnesia, dementia and other associated symptoms (Kwentus and Kirshner, 2008; Greenberg et al., 2012). Such a diagnosis is aided by blood tests determining thiamine levels, as well as a battery of neurological tests, which aid in determining cognitive function and possible neurological causes of motor impairments. [...]
[...] This case study describes the current literature surrounding Korsakoff 's syndrome as well as related diagnostic criteria and treatment. Treatment options for Mr. C are also discussed. Introduction Korsakoff's syndrome is a disorder caused by a severe thiamine, or vitamin B1, deficiency. Recent reports suggest that in the UK alone, roughly 700,000 residents suffer from some sort of amnestic disorder or dementia, with 10 to of those cases caused by alcohol related brain damage (Kopelman et al., 2009). Identified by psychiatrist Korsakoff in the 1880s, Korsakoff's Syndrome was immediately noted to occur primarily in chronic alcoholics, who gave the distinct impression of clear consciousness despite characteristic memory disturbances (Kopelman et al., 2009). [...]
[...] C had become increasingly confused and had trouble with balance and co-ordination and she reported that his eye movements were strange. He had developed memory impairments that were rapidly becoming worse. His memory problems and confusion were increasingly interfering with his ability to look after himself and interact with others, he could not remember new information and his memory for past events and people had also deteriorated. After consulting his G.P., his sister had Mr C admitted to an alcohol treatment programme. [...]
[...] Case study: Korsakoff's syndrome, diagnosis, and treatment Abstract History: Mr. C year-old unemployed male, was admitted to neuropsychiatric treatment. Mr. C. had a history of alcohol abuse, which was exacerbated following personal loss. According to patient's sister, the patient's health, living conditions, and diet were all poor. Symptoms: Increasing confusion, ataxia, nystagmus, worsening amnesia, loss of emotional affect and understanding, and decreased occupational function. Patient was subsequently willingly admitted to an alcohol treatment programme. Attending Psychiatrist advised further investigation into the patient's worsening memory problem. [...]
[...] Together, these suggest primarily subcortical defects are associated with Korsakoff's Syndrome (Ropper and Samuels, 2009). Acetylcholine and GABA neurotransmitter systems are also adversely affected by thiamine depletion (Kopelman et al., 2009). Similar to observations in Alzheimer's Disease, general cortical atrophy is usually observed in anatomical findings of Korsakoff's Syndrome patient's brains, however, other hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's Disease are notably absent, confirming the unique pathology of Korsakoff's Syndrome (Kopelman, 1989; Bozzao et al., 2001; Kopelman et al., 2009). Cumulatively, the biochemical and neuroanatomical changes that result from thiamine deficiency lead to long-lasting defects in neurological function. [...]
using our reader.