"Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity" (issued from Schuman Declaration on 9th May 1950). At the end of the Second World War, bruised, France, Germany, Benelux, and Italy, representing Europe, decided to unite in order to forge lasting peaceful relations. The Europe's Founding Fathers, Robert Schuman as well as Jean Monnet, wished to build a Europe in several stages according to the policy of small steps.
Contrary to a confederation the voluntary union of States which are and remain sovereign a Federal State, such as the United States, is a group created between political entities by a common Constitution in which they retain some powers allowing to consider them as Member States. But they lost their sovereignty in favor of this group which has, mainly, the only international personality.
In his declaration, Schuman already evoked that the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), would be the first step of the European Federation, idea following up the strong movement of European federalism (see history of the foundation of the Union of European Federalists on its website). The legacy of this de facto solidarity is translated into the European Union (EU) established by the Treaty of Maastricht of February 7, 1992.
[...] So, EU would be a new category of federalism and would stay the unique example in its kind: Barroso would like to continue on this line. BIBLIOGRAPHY • LEGAL NORM Treaty on EU, version strengthened on March 2010, • OTHER LEGAL DOCUMENTATION Schuman Declaration on May 9th • BOOKS Union européenne, les notices, documentation française, édition 1999 • NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Le Nouvel Observateur 12/09/2012 “Barroso prône une fédération d'Etats- nation en Europe” JDD 19/10/2012 “Holland regrette la ‘lourdeur' de l'Europe” Le Monde 06/02/2013 “FN: la sortie de l'euro, une idée qui n'a pas pris” Le Nouvel Observateur 03/03/2013 “Marien Le Pen demande un referendum sur la sortie de l'UE” L'expansion 05/03/2013 “Une sortie de l'Union serait- elle une catastrophe pour le Royaume-Uni?” Les Echos 28/03/2013 “'Réelle possibilité' de voir Chypre sortir de l'euro, estiment les banques” Le Figaro 16/04/2013 “France: récession de en 2013 (FMI)” • WEBSITES History of the foundation of Union of European federalists: http://www.federalists.eu/uef/history/ Official website of Europe: www.europa.eu • OTHER Jacques Delors Speech on May 9th : “Le pardon et la promesse. [...]
[...] Nevertheless, the Treaty of Lisbon was considered as a compromise, as a “mini-Constitution”. The EU is still today in a transition step, will it become a Federal State? THE EU, A REAL FEDERAL STATE OR IN DISLOCATION? How will be the future shape of the EU: a Federal State, a break up or an ambiguous compromise as we can have today? The crisis renewed fears as for the EU ( 3.1 but, this one stands firm ( 3.2 Current ruptures The 2008 crisis is always present. [...]
[...] Consequently, without being sovereign, the EU cannot be considered as a Federal State: it is only the institution of an union of States with a common will Harmonization more than federalism The union of these common will States is however in halftone: the process of steps of the EU is not finished yet. All the EU members did not necessarily adhere to mechanisms set up by the EU, e.g. the Eurozone, the Schengen area, the penal cooperation with the European arrest warrant. As for legislation, States have still protected their national legislation. The EU emits certain regulations and directives to harmonize and establish certain principles, but the EU doesn't impose at all a common legislation. For instance, the tax law is still quite different depending on States. [...]
[...] On the model of the de facto solidarity, a Western European Union in charge of security and defense was established after the failure of the European Defense Community. But, the realization of this will to create a Federal Europe took place on March the 25th with the Treaty of Rome. The latter established two other communities, the European Economic Community and Euratom for Energy, each of these communities being endowed with European tools like the European Social Fund or the Common Agricultural Policy. [...]
[...] The Europe's Founding Fathers, Robert Schuman as well as Jean Monnet, wished to build a Europe in several stages according to the policy of small steps. Contrary to a confederation – the voluntary union of States which are and remain sovereign –, a Federal State, such as the United States, is a group created between political entities by a common Constitution in which they retain some powers allowing to consider them as Member States. But they lost their sovereignty in favor of this group which has, mainly, the only international personality. [...]
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