The state of consciousness defies definition, but it may involve an awareness of self, dreams, emotions, moods, perceptions, sensations, and thoughts, although not essentially all of these. The issue surrounding the definition consciousness, and in what sense and to what extent this state exists, is the focus of a plethora of studies in psychology, philosophy of mind, cognitive science, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. In psychoanalysis, consciousness includes cognitive processes of the ego (thinking, perception, planning) and some aspects of the superego like moral conscience. Sigmund Freud went on to distinguish unconscious and conscious behavior. However, behaviorists dismiss consciousness as having no use in science
[...] Second, the comparison between consciousness and an external objective physical world independent of human experience is based on the unsupported metaphysical thesis that such a world exists. The introspectionist is not inclined to grant the behaviorist metaphysical theses, for to do so is to exclude phenomenal experience from the purview of science. Conclusion In summary, the war between psychoanalysis and behaviorism lies readily in how consciousness can be observed and scientifically recorded. Psychoanalysts, both early and modern, have recognized the importance of studying consciousness in explaining human behavior. [...]
[...] These circumstances include the person's environment, whether or not they have a normal family life, and their ability to accept the limitations that society puts on satisfying our instinctual wants and desires. The superego consists of our individual value system, which is put into place by our parents' value system, and takes place within the preconscious, conscious, and unconscious states. The superego is where our conscience resides, which is our internal judge that determines what actions are right and wrong. [...]
[...] In the preconscious state, there is no immediate awareness but it everything is fairly accessible like thoughts and ideas. Lastly, in the unconscious state there is unawareness of everything about inner personalities. The unconscious is composed of instincts and drives that go beyond awareness but that motivate many human behaviors. These instincts and drives are manifested consciously only in distorted form like neurotic symptoms, slips of tongue, mannerisms, and dream images. These types of mental process can be found in dream-wishes; Freud viewed dreams as the fulfillment of wishes (Stoodley, 1959). [...]
[...] As a matter of fact, Freud's work' most recognized aspect, the existence of the unconscious, might be seen as rooted in interweaving theories of consciousness and mental representation that have an extraordinarily contemporary feature (Levine, 2000). In the mid-1990s, Block (1995) highlighted the confusion within discussions of consciousness between and “phenomenal” consciousness. There is a phenomenal consciousness in a mental state if there is something that it is like to be in it; on the other hand, there exists access consciousness if it is poised for rational control of speech, for rational control of action, and for use as a premise in reasoning. [...]
[...] The Behavioral Approach Whereas the psychoanalytic view of consciousness holds that it is the very stuff of minds and for this reason is fitting to be object of psychological investigation, the behaviorist approach ignores consciousness and recognizes the illegitimacy of making consciousness an object of observation. Behaviorists have been attacking the credibility of introspection. They provide a number of objections to introspection; one is that introspection's subject matter, consciousness, is not objective (Zuriff, 1985). John B. Watson, one of the chapres of modern behaviorism, totally dismissed the concept of the mind and consciousness, thereby reducing psychological study to a entirely objective science. [...]
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