A uni national company is an enterprise or a business, a venture which target is to have some customers in order to make some profits. But, it is represented in only one country. They can be smalls or big like the railway company in France SNCF for example. A multinational enterprise (MNE) may be defined as a company that owns or controls production or service facilities in more than one country. In other words, a multinational is not simply a company that trades internationally by exporting its product (or by licensing overseas producers). It actually owns (via a wholly or partly-owned subsidiary) or controls (via a branch plant, joint venture or minority shareholding) productive facilities outside its home country. Very large multinationals have budgets that exceed those of many countries. They can have a powerful influence in international relations, given their large economic influence in politicians' representative districts, as well as their extensive financial resources available for public relations and political lobbying.
[...] The report's "employment elasticities" indicator allows one to look at the relationship between economic growth - measured in GDP - and two of growth's contributory variables, the positive or negative change in employment and productivity. The biennial study found that for every 1 percentage point of additional GDP growth, total global employment grew by only 0.30 percentage points between 1999 and 2003, a drop from 0.38 percentage points between 1995 and 1999. The economic expansion in East Asia was sufficient to generate employment growth, productivity growth and a reduction in the high incidence of poverty in the region. [...]
[...] Adaptability to adapt to change -change technological: The main 0-specific advantages of MNEs is their ability to produce, acquire, master the understanding of and organize the use of technological assets across national boundaries. Of course, the degree of such adaptation would appear to vary between country, sector and firm. Market characteristics also affect the willingness of MNEs to adapt their products to meet local needs. Too often the costs of technology transfer and adaptation are underestimated. In a pioneering study, Teece (1976) showed that depending on the production and product-specific characteristics of the foreign investors, the cost of the adaptations to product, process and materials made necessary by a different production and marketing environment might be considerable. [...]
[...] p376), the American-owned companies tend to favour monetary inducements and profit sharing schemes, while Japanese enterprises give more emphasis to non-pecuniary incentives. Admittedly, MNEs are “superior” but they are also sometimes disloyal towards domestic firms. Indeed, they are disrupting long-established industrial relations or encouraging a dual labour market by paying wages that are out of line with their competitors. (Dunning 1998.p376) Working conditions and employee recruitment: Most studies say that the working conditions in MNEs are close to their own industry or local firms. [...]
[...] According to the ILO, in Namibia, female employment in general constitutes about 38 per cent of total employment. We can observe considerable differences among sectors. Women dominate employment in services such as hotel (71 per cent), public administration (64 per cent), education (59 per cent) and commerce and trade (51 per cent). They also constitute almost half of the employees in health and municipal services as well as private services. So, the dominance of women is in relatively low-skilled, non- technical jobs and low physically exerting jobs. [...]
[...] - In their operations, to the greatest extent practicable, employ local personnel and provide training with a view to improving skill levels, in co-operation with employee representatives and, where appropriate, relevant governmental authorities. - In the context of bona fide negotiations with representatives of employees on conditions of employment, or while employees are exercising a right to organise, not threaten to transfer the whole or part of an operating unit from the country concerned nor transfer employees from the enterprises' component entities in other countries in order to influence unfairly those negotiations or to hinder the exercise of a right to organise. [...]
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