The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. In general terms, of course, an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. As that suggests, advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade, and while these purposes are distinguishable both very often are simultaneously present. Advertising is not the same as marketing (the complex of commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producers and consumers) or public relations (the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or? image' of some person, group, or entity). In many cases, though, it is a technique or instrument employed by one or both of these. Advertising can be very simple a local, event? Neighborhood,' phenomenon or it can be very complex, involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. It differs according to its intended audience, so that, for example, advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults.
[...] ADVERTISING CONTROVERSIAL PRODUCTS TOBACCO: One of the most heated advertising issues in recent years has been proposed restrictions on advertising such product categories as tobacco. Cigarette advertising on television and radio has been banned since January Proponents of banning cigarette advertising argue that advertising tobacco products might result in sickness, in jury, or death for the user and possibly others. Restricting these ads would reduce the sales and subsequently would reduce the unhealthy effects. ALCOHOL: In November 1996, the Seagram Company lifted the self imposed ban by the industry and ran radio and TV ads for two of its whiskeys, Chivas Regal and Crown Royal Canadian. [...]
[...] TRUTH: Advertising shall reveal the truth, and shall reveal significant facts, the omission of which would mislead public SUBSTANTIATION: Advertising claims shall be substantiated by evidence in possession of advertiser and the advertising agency prior to making such claims COMPARISONS: Advertising shall refrain from making false, misleading, or unsubstantiated statements or claims about a competitor or his products or service BAIT ADVERTISING: Advertising shall not offer products or services for sale unless such offer constitutes a bonafide effort to sell the advertised products or services and is not a device to switch consumers to other goods or service, usually higher period GUARANTEES AND WARRANTIES: Advertising of guarantees and warranties shall be explicit, with sufficient information to apprise consumers of their principal terms and limitations or, when space or time restrictions preclude such disclosures, the advertisement shall clearly reveal where the full text of the guarantee or warranty can be examined before purchase PRICE CLAIMS: Advertising shall avoid price claims that are false or misleading, or savings claims that do not offer provable savings TESTIMONIALS: Advertising containing testimonials shall be limited to those of competent witnesses who are reflecting a real and honest opinion or experience TASTE AND DECENCY: Advertising shall be free of statements, illustrations, or implications that are offensive to good taste or public decency. [...]
[...] Moreover, advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty, tasteful and entertaining Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising: In many cases, too, benevolent social institutions, including those of a religious nature, use advertising to communicate their messages messages of faith, of patriotism, of tolerance, compassion and neighborly service, of charity toward the needy, messages concerning health and education, constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways. [...]
[...] Ethics in Advertising The opinion of people about advertising is divided, some praise advertising while others criticize its role not only in selling the products but also the influence it exerts on the economy and society. Business houses, non- profit organizations and others use advertising with the fond hope that it will help them sell products, services, ideas or images. There is no doubt that advertising affects all of us in numerous ways and due to this reason the entire field of advertising has attracted many controversies concerning its impact on economy, society and ethics. [...]
[...] "It is up to the directors and managers of the media which carry advertising to make known to the public, to subscribe to and to apply the codes of professional ethics which already have been opportunely established so as to have the cooperation of the public in making these codes still better and in enforcing their observance." The emphasis is on the importance of public involvement. Representatives of the public should participate in the formulation, application and periodic updating of ethical codes. [...]
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