Liberalism is a philosophy, or political movement that has, for an aim, the development of individual freedom. Since the concept of freedom evolved over time, liberalism evolved as well. However, some core assumptions never changed. First, let us consider how all the core concepts of liberalism are inter-related and based on the individual. Then we shall have a look at each of these concepts. The underlying concept of Liberalism is the concept of the individual. Everything should rely upon it, the society should be organized around him, he should be the main concern. To liberals, all individuals are equally self interested and equally capable of rational thought. Therefore, they are all pursuing different goals and all these goals are equally important to full fill. Since we are all rational beings, one goal is as important as the other because they both come from a rational reflection. Thus there should be equality of opportunity for all to achieve these goals.
[...] John Rawls is representative of that idea in his difference principle: “Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so they are both: - to the greatest advantage of the least advantaged, consistent with the just principle and, Attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.”(8) That means that all possible will be done so that individuals will have the same opportunity to achieve their goals but once this aid has been given fairly to everybody, one has to make the most of his own capacities in order to achieve his goals. [...]
[...] Liberals advocating the laissez-faire policy can be considered utilitarian but at the same time some liberals argue that the final aim is to achieve one's fulfilment which doesn't have to be something related to pleasure or happiness. “Utilitarianism may be defined as "the creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle," and which "holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness rong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness."” Liberty distinction btw positive and negative liberty, Isaiah Berlin "Two concepts of liberty" for kant, in his groundwork for metaphysicals of morals, liverty or freedom is equal to [...]
[...] Labour is the origin and justification of property; contract or consent is the ground of government and fixes its limits. Behind both doctrines lies the idea of the independence of the individual person. Social contract theory Hobbes is the one who definitely writes out the wording of the social contract theory. To him, in the original state of nature, men or agents will want to create laws and a government because self-interested and rational, They will take the option that can take them being better of. [...]
[...] so, all core principles of liberalism are based upon the individual and him being rational and self interested. However, where does that concept of rationality and self-interest come from? It can be explained by two different points of view. First the state of nature theory and second by the liberalism can be considered in three different ways: classical liberalism, political liberalism and new liberalism. They all have believes in common but do not exactly implement them in the same manner. [...]
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