Mozambique is, in the early 20th century, a very heterogeneous country. Without any linguistic, cultural or ethnic harmony, the only point that is common all over this southern African country turns out to be the Portuguese colonial power. However, after an intense liberation struggle, Mozambique became independent in June of 1975; the processes of gaining independence has been induced by, as well as has induced, nationalist movements in this diverse country. Therefore, what central aspects constitute the Mozambican nationalist movements? What is the historical background on which they are based? Moreover, what impact could the socialist discourse have had on the nationalist movements? My analysis will attempt to show that if the Mozambican nationalist movement appears as an isolated case within African decolonization it is due to the fact that it draws heavily from Socialist-Marxist discourses deeply eager to create a new society.
[...] Mozambique thus constitutes an isolated case in African nationalism insofar as its nationalism has not been dominated by a black nationalism relying on the sacrosanct African roots. Since 1968, the purpose of the nationalist movement was to create a society” shaped by the alliance between workers and peasants in which the exploitation of people by people was prohibited. Therefore, it was of a deep importance for FRELIMO to fight against the old ideas such as female or the youth inferiority. [...]
[...] This way, he tried to enhance the Portuguese economic investments in Mozambique by relying on capitalist agriculture, among other things. These strategies have notably led to the augmentation of the white population in Mozambique (coming from Portugal), as well as an increase of black workers within the agricultural sector held by white people. Clearly, and especially after the Second World War, the impact of the colonial power was more visible among the local populations, as the gap between the privileges of the Portuguese and of the locals widened. [...]
[...] Mozambique a Nation in Crisis. Claridge Press. London Jens Erik Torp. (1989) Mozambique. Marxist Regimes Collection. Pinter Publishers (London) Joseph Hanlon. (1990). Mozambique: the Revolution under Fire. British Library. London In The break-up of Britain : crisis and nationalism. Chapter 9. Nairn, Tom (1977) 2In Mozambique : Revolution. Chapter 4. p.23. Hanlon, Joseph (1990) 3In Black Gold : Mozambican miner, Proletarian & Peasant. First, R (1983) In Mozambique : Revolution. Chapter 3. p.17. Hanlon, Joseph (1990) In Mozambique : Revolution. [...]
[...] On the 25th of June 1962 in Dar es-Salam, three of them, the MANU (Mozambique African National Union created in Mombassa in 1961 principally composed by the Makonde people), the UDENAMO (National Democratic Union of Mozambique formed in 1960 and supported by a large number of migrants working abroad) and the UNAMI (National Union for Mozambican Independence mainly constituted by people from the Tete region) made an alliance to create FRELIMO (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique). This party without any strict guidelines in 1962 became the main if not the only nationalist movement in Mozambique, as we will see later. [...]
[...] The Struggle For Mozambique. Penguin. A. & B. Issaacman (1983). Mozambique. From Colonialism to Revolution, 1900-1982. Westview Press. Boulder. Barry Munslow (1983) Mozambique: the Revolution and its Origins. Longman. London. B. Anderson (1987). Immagined Communities. Pluto. Michel Cahen (1988). La crise du nationalisme. Politique Africaine n°29. Mozambique, guerre et nationalismes. Editions Karthala. Paris Luis de Brito (1988). Une relecture nécessaire : la genèse du parti- Etat FRELIMO. Politique Africaine n°29. Mozambique, guerre et nationalismes. Editions Karthala. Paris David Hoile. (1989). [...]
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