The twentieth century marked a turning point in the organization of Muslim societies. After the independence that marked the last century (Middle East, Central Asia), a revolutionary stream of Islam came into existence in Egypt and Pakistan leading to the development of utopian Islamism. Therefore, the politicization of Islam (which means submission or surrender) refers to the exercise of determinism in all areas (economic, legal, social, and institutional) by religious leaders.
[...] Sociology and the expansion of Islam Studies show that rulers in the Islamic countries in the 1960's came from the an urban and a modern sociological group. The 1970s saw the emergence of a new generation of Islamists who recruited students thus amassing a large following. Their rise filled the void left by the nationalist or Marxist ideology which was in decline. Islam did not propose a return to the past but a re-appropriation of modernity. However, young Islamists faced archaic political systems in which large families prevailed and were thus deprived of a political future. [...]
[...] While they adhered to the view that Islam should be thought of only as a legal interpretation of the social bond, as in the traditional fundamentalism, they opined that as a political ideology it should encompass all aspects of social life. The objective of these reformists is the total reorganization of society from an Islamic point of view. This vision of Islamic political and social reforms is opposed to the vision of the "Western" and secular nationalism espoused on the eve of independence. [...]
[...] Nationalism against the exercise of power: In non-Arab models (Turkey, Iran) Islam was built in step with an ethnic identity and the sense of a reconstruction of the national link with Islam: -In Turkey, Erbakan saw Islam as a way to reintegrate the Kurds in the political game (excluded because of the hegemony of language and the Turkish identity) -In Iran, Khomeini Shiism is building a social base wider than the use of Persian by the very legitimacy of the Iranian state. [...]
[...] According to him, neither the Iranian revolution, which was mired in struggles of the seraglio and the economic crisis, nor the activisms of groups of FM (Muslim Brotherhood) are able to produce a genuinely alternative and efficient system. However, we cannot deny that Islam has deeply marked the political landscape and contemporary Muslim society. The advantage is today manifest in the guise of a neo-fundamentalism that is far more moral than political. It is far removed from the implementation of a "revolution from below", unless both the crisis of legitimacy of the state and the impoverishment of the working classes still exists in Muslim countries. [...]
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