We will try to analyze the responses from the political field against climate change and the overall sustainable development. Climate change means significant change in the average weather, which causes a lot of perturbations on the natural system.
The French president, Jacques Chirac, in a World Summit, asserted that the intention of sustainable development was a fundamental advancement and people should work towards its progress, respecting the precautionary principle and by incorporating it in daily life.
However, climate change remains low on the list of a lot of countries' policies. One of greatest challenge facing politicians is curbing greenhouse gas emissions (GGE), and for that they have to set up concrete measures which are incompatible with their growth perspectives. But is there a scenario, according to which the government explain their wishes to develop sustainability, but do not actually want to change the truth? Is there a real dynamic among these politicians who adapt their policies to the needs of the planet?
The climate change, a concern shared by the politicians around the world:
The national actions
The example of France:
The French ministry of the environment gives a lot of importance to sustainable development.
For instance, instigated by the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy, the Grenelle Environment is an open multi-party debate in France that brings together representatives of national and local government organizations on an equal footing, with the goal of unifying a position on a specific theme with a decisive step towards a sustainable development model.
What is sustainable development? By the definition of the Norwegian Prime minister, Gro Harlem Brintland, the sustainable development is a development which fits with today's needs without jeopardizing the capacity of future generations to satisfy their own needs.
As the former French President, Chirac said, sustainable development requires a shift in the behaviors of each of us (citizens, firms, local and national governments), concerning the effects of the climate change (social inequalities, industrial risks, loss of biodiversity, and so on). The aim of the politics is to conciliate the necessity of economic and social advancement, without destabilizing the natural equilibrium of the planet.
The French ministry tries to combine the economic growth with the protection of the environment and social changes.
One of the decisive action which concerns the administration is the eco responsibility of the administration. This implies several responsibilities. First, they have an environmental responsibility, in order to preserve the environment. Second, they have a social and economic one, so that, the state realizes some budgetary economies.
[...] In a conference in Rio de Janeiro, a convention named UN Framework Convention on climate change was adopted. The aim of the conference was to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gas effects in the atmosphere in a level, so that we can prevent all the dangerous perturbation of the climate system. In 2005, the European Council of Ministry decided that the increase of the global temperature should not excel per year. The European Council of environmental ministers asserted that this objective cannot be reached by the current disposition. [...]
[...] The objective of the Kyoto climate change was to establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. This protocol is a notable step and is a symbol of the wish of humanity to react against the climate change. The European Union has decided to integrate the environment in the community domain (the legislation whereby the European Union can legislate). The European Union from the start wanted Kyoto Protocol to reduce 15% of the GGE (greenhouse gas emissions). [...]
[...] B The inequalities between the north and south are still causing damages and accelerate the climate change Historic responsibility of the North; A question of equity: The North has emitted so much greenhouse gases that the South does not want to act until the north acts seriously. The richest nations should in emergency reduce their emissions, promote an ecologically clean development model for the south and help them to adapt their infrastructures to climate changes. The north is responsible of the of the excess of CO2 accumulated in the ozone layer. [...]
[...] III Alternative and efficient tools to set an efficient environmental policy A How to conciliate economy and climate change issue Stern review: The Stern review constitutes the most pragmatic and complete synthesis about the economics of climate change. The principal recommendation of the report is the implementation of an international emission permit market, which permits the coordination of the action of all the countries. Such a mechanism is the only way to a sufficiently large coalition of actors and the solidarity with southern countries. [...]
[...] The Kyoto protocol stipulates a set of policies to satisfy requirements of the population without jeopardizing the needs of the future generations. From 1995, a lot of reports, and especially from the ‘Groupe intergouvernemental d'experts sur l'évolution du climat' (GIEC or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) asserted many times , the effects on climate change due to human activities, with some technical aspects. At the same time, Kyoto Protocol embodies the acknowledgement of the accuracy of those theses put across by these politicians. The Kyoto protocol reflects the commitment and the wish to act against climate change. [...]
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