Weather refers to the state of atmosphere at a given place and time with respect to variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity and air pressure. Climate is the pattern of weather that forms and one expects at a particular place at a given time. The weather or climate of a place usually identifies as warm or cold, wet or dry, cloudy or clear, or windy.
THE BASIS OF WEATHER CHANGES
The basis of predicting the weather prediction depends on the changes brought about by various atmospheric phenomenons, and most of such changes result from the impact of the sun's energy that falls upon the earth.The suns rays warm the earth's surface from -250 degrees centigrade to -18 degree centigrade. The earth further warms to a habitable 15 degree centigrade when the greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide and methane trap a further portion of the sun's energy as it travels back to outer space after touching the earth's surface. However, the rotation and tilt of the earth impacts the quantum of suns rays that falls at a particular place at various times, and this cause differences in temperatures. This also causes circulation of ocean currents, winds and convention, all of which are integral to the earth's weather process and the basis for different climatic seasons like summer, winter, spring, and autumn.
[...] The ancient men, who did not have access to the modern-day scientific instruments resorted to observing natural phenomenon that occur with a particular type of weather, and when such phenomenon recur when the same time of weather repeats, they associated such natural patterns with the type of weather, and this came to be known as “weather lore.” Though weather lore often fail the scientific standards established today and are not a reliable method to forecast the weather, these were the primary source of forecasting the weather as late as the 18th century, and even today many people across the underdeveloped world, especially in Africa depend on such weather lore to forecast the weather. [...]
[...] Such data record hourly in METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Reports), or every six hours in SYNOP (surface synoptic observations) reports, using standardized instrumentation calibrated according to the World Meteorological Organization standards. Forecasting through models The contemporary approach towards weather forecasting bases itself on the assumption that existing weather features may resemble features that produced certain weather conditions in the past. Lewis Fry Richardson in 1922 CE first expounded the possibility of forecasting weather by studying the previous occurrence and impacts of weather pattern. [...]
[...] Weather wanes were popular, and in many cases, the only instrument to forecast the weather in most civilizations of the ancient and medieval world, and this instrument still has relevance today. Anemometer Anemometer is the instrument used to measure wind velocity or speed of the wind. Measuring the speed of the wind is important to determine when moisture-laden winds would strike at a certain place. The earliest form of anemometer is the mechanical anemometer, in which a disk placed perpendicular to the wind rotates by the force of the wind. [...]
[...] Extreme low pressure that often form on the boundary of warm and cold air cause a circulation of air to develop that could develop into tropical cyclones, thunderstorms, and hurricanes. The lowest pressure ever recorded was 25.69 inches of mercury, in the eye of Typhoon Tip, in the tropical western Pacific Ocean, on October which is over 14% lower than normal. Polar Lows, a type of low-pressure system that forms when the arctic regions heat up often bring heavy snow to the northern shores of England. [...]
[...] A volatile fluid such as ether occupies a central chamber, and air passes through the tubes on the base until the apparatus cools and condensation forms on the central chamber. The temperatures of the two thermometers help determine the relative humidity, determined using a standard table. The mechanical hygrometer, invented in 1783 CE by the Swiss physicist and geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure, bases itself on the principle that organic substances like human hair contract and expand in response to the relative humidity. [...]
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