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European Union

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15 Jan 2009
doc

Nationalism and Regionalism in the era of the making of a common European identity

Essay - 5 pages - European union

The year 2000 will be and have already been pivotal for the European Union. Ten new countries became full members of the Union and Turkey is on his way to the membership. But the 2005 failure to make all the countries sign the project of European constitution asks legitimate questions about the...

15 Jan 2009
doc

Governance in the European Union: Policies

Essay - 9 pages - European union

The Common Fisheries Policy is one of the oldest policies entirely delegated to the European Community since it is part of the Common agricultural policy. Indeed, in the Treaty of Rome, agricultural products are defined as “the products of the soil, of stock-farming and of fisheries”...

15 Jan 2009
doc

The European citizenship

Essay - 3 pages - European union

According to the European Commission, “citizenship of the Union is both a source of legitimation of the process of European integration, by reinforcing the participation of citizens, and a fundamental factor in the creation among citizens of a sense of belonging to the European Union and of...

15 Jan 2009
doc

European Court of Justice - motor for European integration?

Essay - 3 pages - European union

In 1996, British Prime Minister John Major has bitterly noted that European Court of Justice (ECJ) should “have its wings clipped”, as already back in 1996 some member states, eager to protect their sovereignty, feared the growing influence of the court. Yet, 10 years later, the...

15 Jan 2009
doc

The Democratic Deficit in the EU

Essay - 7 pages - European union

For years, the European construction appeared to be legitimate through a 'permissive consensus' since no significant opposition to the integration process was to be noticed. Nevertheless, a major debate underlined a 'democratic deficit' in the 1980s, denouncing that the...

15 Jan 2009
doc

The democratic deficit and the role of the EU Parliament

Essay - 3 pages - European union

Since the beginning of the 90's and the end of the “permissive consensus”, the democratic deficit of the European Union has increasingly become high on the agenda of scholars and decision-makers. Defined as “the growing dissonance between the essential requirements of modern...

15 Jan 2009
doc

How successful are the attempts to create a citizenship of the European Union?

Essay - 4 pages - European union

Although the formal concept of European citizenship appeared for the first time in the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992, the idea thereof goes back to the early years of the European construction. The Treaty founding the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 instituted a “basis for a broader...

15 Jan 2009
doc

The future of multilingualism in European institutions

Essay - 7 pages - European union

The progressive enlargement of the European Union brings about many questions, among which linguistic diversity deserves to be explored. In light of the changes brought about by globalization and the resulting emergence of a so-called “global” language, the relevance of cultural...

15 Jan 2009
doc

Europeanization of politics and society: Domestic change and the question of a European Social Model

Essay - 5 pages - European union

Europeanization is an elusive concept because of the variety of meanings it refers to. Scholars such as Featherstone (2003, 6-12) often distinguish several usages according to various outcomes of European change, for instance the emergence of new forms of governance or the process of national...

15 Jan 2009
doc

To what extent has Europe benefited from a "peace dividend" through the European Union and its budget?

Essay - 4 pages - European union

The notion of “peace dividend” was forged in the 1980s to convey an idea that had already been analysed before: the link between security/peace, and economic growth. Without going into further details, one may wonder if this economic theory can be applied to the European Union, which...

13 Jan 2009
doc

EU decision-making

Essay - 3 pages - European union

France is administratively divided in “communes”, the smallest territorial division of the country, usually corresponding to a city or a village. The number of communes in France, including overseas territories, is 36 782. This high number leads to huge disparities in terms of...

13 Jan 2009
doc

What does the European Union's so-called 'democratic deficit' stem from, and how could it be tackled?

Essay - 6 pages - European union

One of the most important discussions in the modern-day European Union concerns the democratic deficit. The Maastricht treaty, which was signed on February 1992 by different European states, claims that the goal the EU is to create ‘an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, in which...

13 Jan 2009
doc

Politics of the European Union

Thesis - 12 pages - European union

Since its foundation in the late 1950's, the European Union has seen its membership growing from 6 to 27 countries in 2007, with the accession of Bulgaria and Romania. The process might not stop at this point, as other countries such as West Balkans, Turkey, and eastern countries (former parts of...

13 Jan 2009
doc

Has European integration contributed to save or to undermine the nation state?

Thesis - 4 pages - European union

In 1882 Ernest Renan declared: “a Nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which, in truth, are really one, constitute this soul, this spiritual principle. One is in the past, the other in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories, the other is the...

13 Jan 2009
doc

Have we reached the limits of the EU enlargement?

Thesis - 8 pages - European union

In the light of the massive 2004 European Union (EU) enlargement and the current one of Bulgaria and Romania, the question of whether the EU is reaching the limits of its enlargement shows all its relevance. In fact, since the moment the European integration process was launched, it has welcomed...

13 Jan 2009
doc

The European Union's Policy in African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries: Towards an Effective Democratisation?

Essay - 7 pages - European union

“Since 1992, the European Community has included in all its agreements with third countries a clause defining respect for human rights and democracy as ‘essential elements' in the EU's relationship. This clause is unique in bilateral agreements. This approach has been further...

13 Jan 2009
doc

The Committee of the Regions

Thesis - 3 pages - European union

The construction of the European Union is, and has always been done by states. Since the Maastricht treaty however, sub national authorities have an official advisory body from which they can influence the making of the European policy: the Committee of the regions. This committee is made of 317...

13 Jan 2009
doc

Can any theory fully explain the process of European integration? If not, why not?

Essay - 13 pages - European union

European integration is a process which began with the birth of the European Coal and Steel Community the 18th of April 1952. This process was at first essentially economical, but the necessary structures needed for an economic integration led also to a political integration. This process has...

12 Jan 2009
doc

The European Commission

Thesis - 6 pages - European union

If Jacques Delors, one of the most famous President of the European Commission (between 1985 and 1995), called the European Union as a UPO or Unidentified Political Object, it can be explained by the special characteristics of its architecture. The European Commission (EC) is undoubtedly one of...

12 Jan 2009
doc

Regulations: Direct applicability and Direct effect

Essay - 8 pages - European union

Article 249 of the European Community Treaty provides that Regulations shall be directly applicable in all Member States. Does this mean that they are also necessarily directly effective? As notices Josephine Steiner , this question is of paramount concern to EC lawyers. If a provision of...

12 Jan 2009
doc

Why has the European Court of Justice been so central to the process of integration?

Thesis - 10 pages - European union

“Law is often still treated as if it were a separate field, clearly distinct from the economic or political spheres” . As the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has never been given a lot of media coverage, most of the time, its role in the integration process is either...

12 Jan 2009
doc

The budgetary implication of the European Union's May 2004 enlargement

Essay - 5 pages - European union

On 1 May 2004 Europe celebrates the entrance of ten new members in the European Union but behind the fireworks and the celebrations, Brussels has to adapt itself to this new generation of the European project. One of the most important points is the budgetary issue. History has shown that the...

12 Jan 2009
doc

The EU and the disintegration of Yugoslavia

Essay - 5 pages - European union

In order to better understand the disintegration of Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990s, it is interesting to recall that Yugoslavia was first created in 1918, and was dismembered firstly during World War Second. Then, it has been dismembered once more with the collapse of the USSR at the...

09 Jan 2009
doc

The economic, territorial, and cultural impact of the European Union on the Danish identity

Case study - 5 pages - European union

Created by the treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Union now has 25 member states. Over the years and decades, it has developed a wide range of policies with an emphasis on economic measures. The member states have had to adapt themselves to this new system of governance and to the presence of...

09 Jan 2009
doc

Multi-level governance in the European Union

Essay - 5 pages - European union

The former French President of the European Commission, Jacques Delors, once stated that the European Union was an “unidentified political object”. This phrase highlights the complexity of the EU polity, which various theories have tried to capture and which has sparked controversy...

03 May 2008
doc

Regional Economic Integration and the European Union

Essay - 3 pages - European union

Regional Economic Integration is the act of cooperating countries entering into agreements with each other to remove all barriers to importing goods into their respective countries. One of the biggest walls to exporting to foreign markets has been tariffs and taxes levied against foreign nations...

23 Oct 2007
doc

The European Union

Tutorials/exercises - 11 pages - European union

The European Union, which formed under this name in 1992, currently consists of 25 nations and covers much of Western Europe. The European Union is an enormous organization that was initially created to maintain peace and security between European states through various political and economic...

29 Nov 2006
doc

The European identity issue: what most determines the European "we feeling"?

Essay - 11 pages - European union

“You don't fall in love with a common market” (EU Commission President Jacques Delors in The European, 3 November 1994). Here emerges one of today's most challenging issues for the European Union: the prevalence of market integration has created a political vacuum and so-called...

25 Jul 2006
pdf

Critically examine the factors that ultimately led to the enlargement of the EU in 2004. What are the stages and debates?

Essay - 5 pages - European union

According to the article 43 of the European Community treaty, 'any European State may apply to become a member of the Union[...]the conditions of admission and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the Union is founded which such admission entails shall be the subject of an agreement...

24 Mar 2006
doc

The European Union and organized crime

Essay - 8 pages - European union

With French and Dutch voters' recent rejection of the proposed constitutional treaty for the European Union, a number of proposals in the field of Justice and Home Affairs have been watered down or considerably postponed. However, both EU leaders and the general public continue to place high...