The European Union is the most accomplished multinational organization in the world. Since it's beginning in 1950, with the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Union has been integrating more and more, becoming a unique. The European Union was at first, based on economic performances. Thus, after the Rome Treaty in 1957, the Single European Act in 1986 and the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, principles of free trade, free movements of goods, capitals and people are now well applied in the Union territory. All these principles allowed the Member States to enjoy greater economic performances since they joined the Union. In spite of its good economic performances, the European Union still lags behind the USA or China in terms of growth and GDP per inhabitant. This record has conducted the European Union to launch an active policy in the social domain. Among the major issues that the countries of the European Community have to deal with, unemployment and the labor market certainly are fundamental priorities. Indeed, the problem of unemployment in the European Union is twofold: it is really high (around 8%) and it seems to be persistent. It is also true that if, the European unemployment rate is high, it hides a big heterogeneity regarding the fact that some countries have lower unemployment rates than others.
[...] The European Employment Strategy was introduced to deal with what it is called structural unemployment (see curtain below), it soon became a tool for the new strategic objective of the EU: the creation of a European society and economy based on knowledge. Structural unemployment involves a mismatch between workers looking for jobs and the vacancies available, despite the number of vacancies being similar to the number of unemployed people. Structural unemployment has three major forms: frictional unemployment, during the time an active change jobs he can unemployed, it doesn't depend on the economic circumstances. [...]
[...] Genesis and General Presentation of the European Employment Strategy The need for a European Employment Strategy The early 90's and the realization for EU action In the early 1990's, one of the key reasons behind a renewed debate on employment was the realization that the economic and social problems, which emerged in the aftermath of the oil shocks of the previous decades and the currency crisis in the beginning of the 90's, were the largely European Union's own making. While the pace of European integration had accelerated in various fields, the Union did not have robust enough tools nor coherent enough strategies to deal with macroeconomic shocks, nor did it have very effective responses to prevent and tackle persistent unemployment levels, which would in turn develop into long term unemployment and other structural problems in the labor markets. [...]
[...] Quality Improvement of Job Supply Concerning job supply the European Employment Strategy has to face three major problems. The first one is to give inactive people in age to be active the possibility to enter the labor market. The second concern is to facilitate access to the labor marker for people who are unemployed. The third preoccupation is to maintain on the labor market actives that are already in. The resolution of these three problems is fundamental for the success of the quantitative Lisbon target. [...]
[...] The European Employment Strategy is as a consequence needed so as to deal with these new challenges that Europe will face up in a few years. At this time, we can hope that the EES would have already improved the European economic situation. Indeed, if Europe doesn't become this economy, based on knowledge that the Lisbon strategy tries to achieve, we can really fear for the European low-skilled workers who will necessarily be warned by European firms' outsourcing in low-wages countries, in Asia or Eastern Europe. [...]
[...] In this area, the major recommendation of the European Employment policy is to launch a structure to escort people to employment before they start being a long-period unemployed person. The start of the intervention must start less than six months after the beginning of the unemployment period for the young people, and less than twelve month after for the adult population. All Member States have set up the device recommended by the Guidelines. In France for example, this device is integrated to the Agence National pour l'Emploi (ANPE). [...]
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