Criterion referenced tests, norm referenced tests, decision making process, CRT
Testing is an important aspect of collecting information that is used in the decision making process by the examiner or the teacher or the practitioner. Depending on the use and the decision making process that the results are needed for, there are different tests that can be used to measure different capabilities of the examinee. There are therefore two main types of tests that are measured are the norm-referenced tests and the criterion-referenced tests.
[...] Miklos, M. (2010). Preparation for Criterion-Referenced Tests: A Brief Review of Mathematical Competencies for Teachers of Early Childhood. Washington: UP of America. Miller, L. (2009). Developing Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests. New York: Haworth Press. Schell, L. [...]
[...] References Brown, J., & Hudson, T. (2012). Criterion-referenced Language Testing. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Dappen, L., & Isernhagen, J. (2006). An Examination of 2002 to 2004 Nebraska Criterion Referenced Tests, Norm Referenced Tests, and District Portfolio Ratings for Math at Grades and 11. Lincoln: Nebraska Dept. of Education. [...]
[...] One of the main differences as aforementioned is the comparison targets which assesses what the examinees performance are compared to. The NRTs use criteria where the student is compared with other students in the classroom to gauge their capability in comparison to their peers. On the other hand the CTRs criteria are based on a predetermined set of principles to understand if the examinee has understood the concepts and the objectives of the study. The examinee in the case of the CRTs is known to have mastered the topic through passing the examination while for the NRTs the person is said to be a master after checking their results against the results of other students in the same classroom (Miklos, 2010). [...]
[...] It is therefore important for a teacher to strike a balance and understand the difference in terms of difficulty between the two tests in order to bring out the best in the students and to develop the students educationally. The score distribution is also another main difference that differs between the two types of tests due to the shape of the examinees' score distributions. The score distributions for the different tests are determined by the level of difficulty that the examiner had placed on a test. [...]
using our reader.