The concepts of free movement of goods and competition are enshrined in European Union law. However, it is possible to seek to obtain a protected designation of origin (PDO) for certain goods. Once obtained the PDO does indeed protect the specified goods from elements of competition. A Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) are geographical indications defined in European Union Law to protect the names of regional foods. The law ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed in commerce as such. The legislation came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods and eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavor. Briefly, this European Community Certification covers the term used to describe high-quality European foodstuffs which are produced, processed and prepared in a given geographical area using recognised know-how.
[...] The revenue from such a charge is intended to finance activities for the special advantage of the national products processed or marketed on the national market. The tax is redistributed to the tennis balls producers so they can compete more effectively against foreign producers. So the tax they payed is even more refunded. It is unfair for the competition, because the result of the tax is that foreign producers pay for improving Spanish production. It leads to giving a sizeable advantage to national products. [...]
[...] ( The Commission proposed again the registration of Feta as a PDO which was adopted by means of Regulation 1829/2002: be registered as a protected designation of origin, a traditional name such as ‘feta' that is not the name of a region, place or country must refer to an agricultural product or a food from a defined geographical environment with specific natural and human factors capable of conferring on that product or a food its specific characteristics”. According to the Commission, in this case, these requirements were fulfilled, and as a result, the name ‘feta' had not become the common name neither generic. [...]
[...] In international trade, dumping is to sell products in other countries at an inferior price compared to the one used in the origin country of the company. Both practices are illegal and considered as disloyal to liberal trade. In our case, this practice is discriminatory for Danrad and the other competitors. It prevents them from being competitive on the prices. Then the company uses other disloyal methods to hinder Danrad's sales. Not only it uses incentives to influence its distributors not to sell Danrad's products but it also pressurizes them by employing other methods such as not delivering spare parts to them, so they become sometimes in delicate situations face to their customers. [...]
[...] The article 81 prohibits agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market”. More precisely conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts” are forbidden. Green Bike Corporation has used incentives such as Loyalty Bonuses to lead its distributors not to sell Danrad' bikes. [...]
[...] The European website gives the complete list of products' names concerned with this protection : Wines Cheeses Hams Sausages Olives Beers Fresh meat (and offal) Meat based products Other products of animal origin (eggs, honey, milk products excluding butter, etc.) Oils and fats (butter, margarine, oils, etc.) Fruits, vegetables, cereals, whether or not processed Fish, molluscs, fresh crustaceans and . -based products Beverages made from plant extracts Bread, pastry, cakes, confectionery, biscuits and other baker's wares Other agricultural products Natural mineral waters and spring waters Natural gums and resins Essential oils Hay Cork Cochineal (raw product of animal origin) Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa Pasta, including cooked or stuffed Prepared dishes Prepared sauces Soups and stocks Ice-cream and sorbet For example Champagne can only come from the French Region called Champagne to be named as such. [...]
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