Asking ‘how globalized' a city is quite a loaded question; to determine or quantify the degree of globalization within a city is quite a arduous task. Globalization isn't measurable in neat increments; it isn't a static characteristic nor does it comprise static components. Diverse cities possess different degrees of globalization, and the attempt to quantify these levels seems highly problematic. This situation additionally becomes even more tricky when we consider the word globalization- not only is it quite difficult to measure, but furthermore, what is it we are measuring? There are a wealth of diverse explanations, definitions and assessments of globalization as different theorists aim to provide their conceptualizations of the varied ways in which a city can become globalized. Some theorists emphasise the economic, while others stress the cultural and still others gage globalization geographically or according to the level of international interconnectedness with the western world.
[...] Furthermore, in Appadurai's analysis of cultural globalization, he takes the breakdown a step further. Appadurai distinguishes five strands of global "scapes," that cross across cultural boundaries: ethnoscapes, the landscape of persons who constitute the shifting world in which people live, technoscapes, the global configuration of technologies moving at high speeds across previously impermeable borders, financescapes, the global grid of currency speculation and capital transfer, mediascapes, the distribution of the capabilities to produce and disseminate information and the large complex repertoire of images and narratives generated by these capabilities, ideoscapes, ideologies of states and counter- ideologies of movements, around which nation-states have organized their political cultures. [...]
[...] The world's most ‘globalized' cities could be viewed as the ones in which the economies are thriving with the capitalist system at work and their level of interconnectedness and integration within the world economy is high. However, these aforementioned cities wield great power and are vital markets, but do not afford their inhabitants the most basic resources. These global cities, the most globalized cities that is, are central hubs to global economic markets but allow for marginalized residents who lack basic urban liveability. [...]
[...] The large cities of the Developing World are becoming "world cities," gradually more vital connections in the financial and productive systems in the global economy. However, environmental resources are being depleted, and the inhabitants lack the most basic resources, food water and sanitation, and are denied a livelihood. “Currently, dominant globalization constrains and undermines urban liveability It is mostly top-down and oriented towards economic growth for private profit. It is not inclusive nor democratic nor is it oriented towards public welfare, social justice and environmental sustainability.” (van Viet, 34) As these urban centres take on new roles as "world cities”, the notion of development running concurrent with improving circumstances seems to be disproven. [...]
[...] Cities are at the heart of global economic integration. the centre of global economic integration and structural adjustment is the interlinkage of megacities and other major metropolises.” 106) Furthermore, cities can have a reciprocal relationship with economic globalization. As we know, globalization shapes cities by interjecting a range of new changes, for example providing governmental structural changes or employment opportunities. Just as globalization shapes cities, the reverse is also true: cities shape globalization. Cities provide a labor force, infrastructure, support services and other essential elements without which globalization could not take place. [...]
[...] The answer is yes- although the marginalized city can be found anywhere in the world, it is especially present in Africa. Underdeveloped African cities often lack the required infrastructure to take advantage of the globalization of information and technology. “Although the world welcomes the successes of globalization, many urgent problems remain. In Africa, only one-third of all urban households are connected to potable water.” (van Viet, 32) The advantages of globalization have been felt in some nations and regions of the world, while conditions have worsened for others. [...]
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