The third world is a subject which has caused much ink. Several features can be found as economic problems, political instability, authoritarian regimes. However, some countries as the tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong-Kong) succeed in dealing with their economic and political problems to become developing countries. Latin America did not follow the same way. Many countries of Latin America have still a troubling economic situation with deep wealth inequalities. During the 1960s "dependency theories" tried to explain why Latin America and other Third World regions were not developing as the North. Some of the more provocative work has been produced by Latin Americans. They were known as dependency theorists and they examined the unequal trade between LDCs which used to sell raw materials to northern industrialized countries that exported manufactured products. The general idea was that some countries had their economy conditioned by the expansion of others.
[...] Since 2005 Brazil is out of IFM's Economic plan but does not deliver from its guardianship and was the tenth world economy with a GDP of billion in 2006. Recently the biggest oil company in Brazil has announced the discovery of large reserve of oil, maybe one of the biggest reserves in the world. If this announcement is true, Brazil will be able to recover its own economic autonomy and to continue its evolution on its own. Bibliography Ben Ross Schneider, Politics within the State: Elite Bureaucrats and Industrial Policy in Authoritarian Brazil, (1991). [...]
[...] The target was to reorganize the state apparatus and to eliminated particularistic and clientele's elements, thus public had to bring the politically and economically strategic sectors of society under its control in order to ensure unhindered progress of the model of capitalist industrial development.” Nevertheless, this change did not eliminated clienteles at all, but was not more than class alliances which had brought an "aristocratic culture" made of patron-client relationships and personalism. This authoritarian bureaucracy grew up through a new political ideology of corporatism: manifest corporatism” which meant the emergence of state capitalism a stronger state involved in central planning and a control over social forces. [...]
[...] The Brazilian state accepted a disengagement of the state in its economic policy but kept an authoritarian bureaucracy corrupted by clienteles In 1985 Brazil adopted a democratic regime and decided to transform its civil society as a celebrated political actor. This new political system changed the relationship between the society and the state. The Brazilian society usually not represented in the political area had the opportunity to build in 1984 many institutions such as the MST, the rural grassroots social movement. [...]
[...] in Menno Vellinga, The Changing Role of the State in Latin America, (1998), P.36 Fernando Urioechea, Patrimonial Foundations of the Brazilian Bureaucratic State (1980), P.52 Fernando Urioechea, Patrimonial Foundations of the Brazilian Bureaucratic State (1980), P.53. Menno Vellinga, ??The Changing rôle of the state in Latin America ? in Menno Vellinga, The Changing Role of the State in Latin America, (1998), P.9. Menno Vellinga, ??The Changing rôle of the state in Latin America ? in Menno Vellinga, The Changing Role of the State in Latin America, (1998),P.10 John D Wirth, Edson de Oliveira Nunes, Thomas Bogenshild eds. [...]
[...] The economic system was modified in 1930, a natural reaction after the great depression and an obligation because of a reduced demand for raw materials after 1929. Thus, the Brazilian state chose an internal market until 1970: the ISI. This system, often used by authoritarian regimes, led to an important state intervention, a control over the political, social and corporate groups. Secondly, Brazil started its industrialization around 1940 in order to reduce its dependence over northern countries. This inward- looking industrialization produced manufactured goods under an authoritarian regime without regard for social pressures. [...]
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