Unlike the corporation that attempts to describe the living world as we would prefer, the economy seeks to describe the actual working based on incentive mechanisms. This field of study is not limited to businesses, unemployment and growth: it can provide an analytical model for virtually all forms of human behavior.
This is precisely thesubject of the book.Thus, the authorization of abortion by the Supreme Court of the United States in the 1970s helped to substantially reduce the number of births in the disadvantaged areas. This led to a tremendous drop in crime as observed in the 1990s.
This is only slightly due to the economic progress made by new policing methods. It is contrary to the views of economists then.The economy had provisions for estate agents who were waiting much longer to get the best deal possible when selling their own homes or the money invested in the country had little influence of results during an election.
Incentives are artificial mechanisms (developed by economists and applied by the competent authorities) that tend to stimulate people to perform better rather than leading to a worsening condition. These incentives are often the consequence of a combination of economic, social and moral factors. It thus appears to be anti-productive and substitute a low economic penalty (fine) to an element of guilt.
These rewards and praises may be a result of late parental child care, or the giving of economic rewards (generating risks of fraud and extortion), that replacemoral compensation (merits) to blood donors. Note that it is also a combination of social factors like exclusion, isolation, poor credit rating , economic factors like loss of employment and income, fines and moral factors like guilt, that led to the precipitous drop in recorded crime in Europe in recent centuries.
In this context, cheating is the result of a combination of incentives to earn more and / or provide less. On April 15, 1987, seven million dependent children had disappeared in the U.S. The income tax returns require that we mention their social security numbers.The establishment of evaluation of schools and their personnel based on student performance combined with the scarcity of investigations and the weakness of sanctions is a strong incentive for teachers to inflate the results of their students. For example, they tend to amend the answers and provide copies of multiple choice questions.
These include algorithms that detect sequences of identical responses, inconsistencies in copies (wrong answers to easy questions) or irregularities in results from one level to another are used to identify effective teachers from those who cheat. In Japan, we also see that the fake elite sumo wrestlers fight in the annual tournament out of solidarity. This tournament, can compile a ranking of wrestlers, and is well organized so that the eighth victory in fifteen battles is crucial for everyone.It is thus evident that the sumo wrestlers earn seven wins eight times out of ten as against the sumo wrestlers who have won eight.
Tags: Freakonomics, Steven Levitt, Stephen Dubner,
[...] In this context, cheating is the result of a combination of incentives to earn more and / or provide less. On April seven million dependent children had disappeared in the U.S. The income tax returns require that we mention their social security numbers.The establishment of evaluation of schools and their personnel based on student performance combined with the scarcity of investigations and the weakness of sanctions is a strong incentive for teachers to inflate the results of their students. For example, they tend to amend the answers and provide copies of multiple choice questions. [...]
[...] This link between the birth of unwanted children in disadvantaged areas and the level of crime reveals another area of study: the role of parents in their child's development.This art is often the seen to be the subject of hundreds of theories preached passionately by experts. Some common rules like: Lay the baby on her back or stomach, breastfeed or bottlefeed, to spank or not, are some questions that parents are seeking answers to. They want to play their role better and experts are quick to respond to the calls. [...]
[...] We can compare the phenomenon with crowds of young actors, musicians and professional athletes who live in poverty and finally attaining glory and reaching the highest levels. IV) Where are the criminals? The history of these people residing in poor neighborhoods of large American cities is also related to another nationwide phenomenon in the United States in the 1990s. In 1966, a year after taking office, the Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu decreed the illegality of abortion in a country which had witnessed four abortions during the time of birth at that time. [...]
[...] They do not watch the same TV shows (Seinfeld, one of the series on Sunday and the most watched in history, does not appear among the top 50 favorite shows of blacks), or smoke the same cigarettes of Newport for Blacks as against a majority of Marlboro in whites) or more interestingly, give the same surnames to their children.To analyze the phenomenon more thoroughly, Fryer compiles the birth certificates of all children born in California since 1961. More than 16 million records informed us about the origin, marital status of parents, their zip codes (indicators of socio-economic neighborhood) and their method of payment for maternity expenses (other socio-economic indicators. [...]
[...] The study reveals that the white child attends a school in general of students are white and one black child attends a school with the average students of 60% black ones. But the schools attended by black students in general are themselves much less efficient and have much more disturbing elements of learning (presence of gangs, non-participation of parents in school life and so on) than the schools of the predominantly white students. Moreover, whites who attend these schools also generally failed at school and blacks who attend "white" schools did not fall behind their white peers. [...]
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