Iran has always been a major concern in United States foreign policy. With almost seventy million inhabitants, three times the population of Iraq, the former Persia is a key actor in the Middle East. The diplomatic relations between America and Iran have fluctuated according to regime changes. The United States backed the anti-communist Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who ruled Iran from 1941 to 1979. They saw him as a "bulwark against the expansion of Soviet influence in the Persian Gulf" (Katzman). When the Shah government collapsed in February 1979, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini declared an Islamic Republic of Iran. The tensions between the new anti-West leader and the United States worsened dramatically with the Iran hostage crisis, from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981.
[...] Dick Cheney lost his chief of staff, the neoconservative Lewis “Scooter” Libby was indicted in October for allegedly lying to prosecutors about his role in disclosing a Central Intelligence Agency operative's identity [Valerie Plame]” (King and Solomon). Mr Lilly said to a grand jury that the leak was ordered by his “superiors,” that is, the Vice-President. Lawrence Franklin, part of the neoconservative strategists at the Pentagon, was charged “with illegally disseminating classified intelligence” (King and Solomon). Finally, some of the administration's most prominent neoconservatives have left their position. [...]
[...] In practical terms, this reorganization will result in the shift of Foreign Service officers from Europe to developing countries[iii]. Mrs. Rice is very influential inside the Bush administration. She is an efficient “bureaucratic infighter” (King and Solomon). Thanks to the influence she has built during the first term, President Bush allows her to pursue her own policy, whereas Colin Powell was not allowed to adopt such a multilateral perspective. The IAEA and the United Nations, disdained by the administration three years ago, are now the main tools for dealing with Iran. [...]
[...] “Iran Leader Threatens New Nuclear Policy The Guardian February 2006. Katzman, Kenneth. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses. CRS Report for Congress. Updated January Kessler, Glenn. “Bush Says U.S. Would Defend Israel Militarily”, The Washington Post February 2006, A18. King Jr., Neil, and Solomon, Jay. “Diplomatic Relations: As 'Neocons' Leave, Bush Foreign Policy Takes Softer Line; Ms. Rice Changes Approach To Iran and North Korea; Democracy Still Key Goal; Cheney's Waning Influence?”, The Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition) February 2006, pg. [...]
[...] If the Commander in Chief keeps this position, his administration will have to follow no matter its opinion. decision 27-3 (Anderson and Kessler). Director for Non-Proliferation, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [iii] It is clear today that America must begin to reposition our diplomatic forces around the world, so over the next few years the United States will begin to shift several hundred of our diplomatic positions to new critical posts for the 21st century. We will begin this year with a down payment of moving 100 positions from Europe and, yes, from here in Washington, D.C., to countries like China and India and Nigeria and Lebanon, where additional staffing will make an essential difference.” Secretary C. [...]
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