One of the most important discussions in the modern-day European Union concerns the lack of effectiveness of common foreign and security policy. As the Union moves towards integration, creating such a policy has become one of its most pressing concerns. I shall consider this question in detail in this paper by considering the following question: "Why has common foreign and security policy been so much more difficult to organise than economic cooperation?" To answer to this question, it is important to carry out a comparative political analysis of the foreign and security area on the one hand, and the economic area on the other.
However, "Foreign and security policy" and "Economic cooperation" must first be discussed in more detail.
The main questions are: - Have foreign and security policy and policy regarding economic cooperation been a priority for the European Union? Has there been consensus among different European states about foreign and security policy and economic cooperation? - Has there been any alteration of foreign security policy and economic cooperation policy when applied to non-European states or foreign organizations? - Has foreign and security policy and economic cooperation policy been directed by particular political figures? - Have foreign and security policy and economic cooperation policy been well conducted?
[...] Has there been consensus among different European states about foreign and security policy and economic cooperation policy? Since 1955, there have been different points of view among member states concerning a common foreign and security policy. For example: - They are divided on the idea of relinquishing more control over foreign policy to EU institutions. Some European states do not want to be bound by a collective foreign and security policy because they are afraid that coordination will interfere with the freedom of member states to address matters of national rather than of European interest (John, McCormick 1999, 203). [...]
[...] - Peterson, John and Sjursen, Helene A Common foreign policy for Europe? London: Routledge - Soetendorp, Ben Foreign policy in the European Union : theory, history and practice. London: Longman. - Smith, Hazel European Union foreign policy: what it is and what it does. London : Pluto. - Smith, Karen E The making of EU Foreign Policy. London: MacMillan. - Viola, Donatella M European Foreign Policy and the European Parliament in the 1990s: An investigation into the role and voting behaviour of the European Parliament's political groups. [...]
[...] - Has foreign and security policy and economic cooperation policy been directed by particular political figures? - Have foreign and security policy and economic cooperation policy been well conducted? I. Definitions of the main concepts a. What does “common foreign and security policy” mean? I take this phrase to cover all questions related to the security of the European Union, including the eventual framing of a common defence policy, intended to bring about a single system of defence for the entire Union (Brian, White 2001, 143). [...]
[...] In the field of foreign and security policy the achievement has been less marked: - There is a lack of military capacity, and the Union does not have appropriate sufficient political or material support from member states. Consequently it is not possible for the European Union directly to develop a rapid reaction force so that it can respond more effectively to international emergencies (Hazel, Smith 2002, 5). - There is a lack of a centralised decision-making capacity with a single executive. [...]
[...] It is not just that many states lack the requisite military power; there is a constant problem of how to respond to the enormous military and political power of the USA (Hellen, Wallace and al 451) Conclusion Why has the EU's common foreign and security policy been so much more difficult to organise than its policy of economic cooperation? The following factors are paramount: - The European Union has a relatively weak interest in defence policy and few direct capabilities. [...]
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