In the 1960s, a community of nations like France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux covered almost all economic sectors, introduced the future common market framework, and established common policies for agriculture, transports, international relations, and regional cohesion. The integrating economic success attracted new countries. In 1973, United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark became member states and Greece joined the European Union in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986. Despite the international economic and monetary crisis in the 1970s, the EU cooperation led to the complete economic integration in the lines of the 1987 Single European Act for a single market, and new political fields, environment, health, social and territorial cohesion. In November 1989, The Berlin wall fell, and the Soviet bloc collapsed, thus opening up new perspectives for a continental reunification. The European Union was created in 1992 with the support of the Maastricht treaty with its "three pillars" of Community Method, Foreign & Security Policy, and Justice & Home Affairs and the framework for a single currency.
[...] We will examine whether or not Turkey should join the EU by dealing objectively with the political, economical and socio-cultural issues. A. Political issues Copenhagen Criteria Between 2001 and 2003, the Turkish government has displayed a praiseworthy tenacity to meet the accession criteria in order to open the negotiation process as soon as possible. It amended its constitution and passed several laws relative to its institutions and the fundamental rights (abolition of death penalty, zero tolerance for torture, freedom of speech, association and religion, and cultural right). [...]
[...] Then, we will address the issue: “Should Turkey join the European Union?” In order to resolve this issue, the report will briefly review the history of EU Turkey relationships and examine the different positions of the stakeholders. The document will assess the different points in the negotiations which officially commenced in 2005, and will propose recommendations on whether to continue, pause or stop the membership process. I. EU enlargement: perspectives, objectives and stakes A. Context and Background: In the 1950s, a community of six nations (France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries) introduced a common market framework and established common policies (e.g. [...]
[...] Nevertheless, Turkey still has a far way to go, especially regarding fundamental freedoms. Human rights, minority rights and religious freedom have been enhanced but the implementation has to be more efficient. While the press freedom legislation remains too restricted, restrictions on Association rights have been relaxed. The Republic of Turkey does not recognize minorities; The Kurdish minority numbering ten million has been violently repressed from 1984 to 1999 (35,000 deaths). Although the situation has been pacified, there currently exists an open military conflict with the PKK Iraqi Kurds rebels. [...]
[...] Geography The controversial issue of European borders (often raised to hide some intellectual/philosophical pre-judgments) is bound to rear its ugly head during the accession process (the Maastricht Treaty stated a Union primarily based on the sharing of values). While some might argue that Turkey is not in Europe, and that its common borders with Iraq and Iran raise a potential danger (e.g. direct conflict with the terrorist PKK faction in North Iraq), others view Turkey as a geographical and cultural bridge between Europe and Asia, and likely to become a strategic player in inter-continental relations. [...]
[...] So why, when and under what conditions should (or not) Turkey join the EU? Turkey will be a major economic player of the 21st century because of its geographic position and its undeveloped 70 million consumer domestic market. Already linked to EU along the ‘European Union-Turkey Customs Union', next stage could lead to a global “almighty Europe”, especially economically and on international political defence issues. As a matter of fact, Turkey has to achieve the Copenhagen criteria regarding political, economical issues in order to integrate the EU. [...]
using our reader.