The realists claim to consider that the human and social relations (political) do not conform to an ideal as we would like them to. Their first concern is to understand the constraints to change and view the progress through an objective observation of reality.
For realistic thinkers, the States are the main actors in international relations. A state is rational and seeks to maximize its national interest. The main purpose of foreign policy sometimes implies the use of force in the interest of security and for political issues.
[...] Lenin and Luxemburg think that capitalism was the product of the final phase of imperialism. Huge financial oligopolies emerged from the merger of banking and industry, seeking to conquer new territories and expand their power which equaled settlement by war. The successors of Lenin in the USSR, Trotsky and Stalin strengthened their communism in the USSR and other countries by extending their thinking. Khrushchev and Brezhnev had a different view and they were more open towards the outside world. But it was only Gorbachev who mixed communism with liberalism. [...]
[...] Some philosophers think that they can test the influence of values of quantitative or positive methods through polls and statistical correlations, while others believe that the impact of values can be analyzed by qualitative methods such as analysis of speeches, interviews, etc Communitarianism According to communitarians, international relations are primarily determined by the values of ethnic, religious and linguistic identities of various human groups. The values shared by various communities of identity are thus the foundation of civilization. The behavior of each state is determined by the civilization to which he belongs. [...]
[...] The analysis of Bull is pluralistic because it draws ideas from the power of Hobbes, the foundations of international law of Grotius and the establishment of an international order based on the universal moral standards of Kant. According to Kissinger, there may be an agreement between the two states if they have economic and political systems. He said that the smaller states may agree among themselves to equalize the powers, but there could be no agreement between two companies that have the same ideology. [...]
[...] "It is protectionist when it is low and liberal when you're rich." For liberals, international relations include strategic, political and economical relations Marxism Marxism was born as an answer to liberalism. Their aim is to overthrow capitalism and bourgeois democracy and replace it with socialism and communism. For liberals the human is perfect (optimistic), but for Marx there is no prerequisite to human nature. Their material conditions contribute to determine their ideology. In all class societies (slavery, feudalism, capitalism), political power has always been held by the ruling class who controlled the means of production of the economic wealth. [...]
[...] In the neo-realists perception of foreign policy, security is the most important factor followed by the economy, and for the neoliberals it is the economy before safety The Neo-Marxism The Neo-Marxists differ from the Marxists on three main points: They are not intellectuals and leaders They thought is based on different theories of social science Their goal is not to bring about revolutionary change, but the analysis of capitalist development Imperialist capitalism is the most radical theory as it reinforces the dependence of the South vis-à-vis the North. [...]
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