Shortly after the Second World War, it appears necessary to the Allies to equip the world with an international organization able to regulate the conflicts peacefully occurring between the various States. This ambition proceeds of a long reflexion, born in 1941 with the Charter of the Atlantic. This institution must succeed the Company of the Nations (SDN) which had been announced, in the inter-war period, by its incapacity to solve the conflicts.
Founded in 1945, The United Nations is as a result born from the common will to set up the conditions of a long lasting world peace by the association of the nations, economic and cultural coordination, by the justice and the universal respect of the Human Rights.
How did the UN implement this new conception of international relations? Which resources does it have? What obstacles did it meet?
[...] The principles are: Sovereign equality of all the Member States and respect of the individual rights Pacific regulation of the conflicts; international cooperation Its organization The head office of the UN is established in New York, which brings up the world primacy of the United States. The UN is composed of: general meeting, where each Member State lays out of a voice, which puts forth recommendations, but without forcing the obligation of the States, and defines programs of action for the development. [...]
[...] Thus, the annual contributions of Member States to become the issue of bitter controversy, the scales established in 1945 by the GNP of the time had not been revised, and now often proving inadequate: thus, major contributors aggrieved (the USA with Japan increased from to its admission in 1956 to 19% today) with countries whose contribution has remained roughly stable (Europe Western, Third World) or abnormally low (Russia, China and other emerging countries), have delays in payment can be substantial, or simply refuse any extraordinary contribution (voluntary) bodies or specialized peacekeeping missions. Several budgets of the UN are thus deficit (debt of the United Nations in 2005 exceeds $ 2.5 billion), increasing operational difficulties The UN and redefinition between impotence? Organized by the victors in 1945 and ever since reformed, the UN today do not take into account the changing world since then or since the end of the Cold War in 1989, causing further criticism and demands . [...]
[...] Its defense of the action "multilateral" by global cooperation under the aegis of the United Nations, advocated since 1991 as the basis of "new international order" is undermined by the "unilateralism" of certain powers like the United States U.S., Russia or China: refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions (1997), which undermines much effort the international community for sustainable development; refusal to sign or ratify the Treaty establishing the International Criminal Court (2002); revival and redefinition of the American nuclear program, establishing the principle of preventive use of nuclear weapons (Nuclear Posture Review, 2002), and especially personal strategy pursued since 2003 in Iraq, against the opinion of the UN, the government of George Bush and his allies in the "war against terrorism. [...]
[...] Finally conferences are devoted to population issues (Bucharest 1974, Mexico 1984, Cairo 1994), environment (the "Earth Summits": Stockholm 1972 with the creation of UNEP Program, UN Environment Rio 1992, Kyoto in 1997 with its Protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Johannesburg in 2002 adopted a plan that favor sustainable development), etc . III-The ambiguities and difficulties of operation 1. The weight of the Cold War The opposition between the United States and the Soviet Union prevented the United Nations to achieve its mission of ensuring peace by respecting the right of peoples to themselves: the Korean War (1950-53) has made a tool in the hands of the liberal camp (Communist China is not part of the Security Council until 1971). [...]
[...] They may result in missions of observation and inspection of the UN observation of the truce in Palestine in 1948 and the successful holding of Palestinian elections in 2006; Inspection Iraqi military facility between 1991 and 2003 or the Iranian nuclear program until If mediation fails, the UN can impose an embargo (partial or total), including one that hit the arms sales and technology to Iran in the dispute over Iran's nuclear since 2006. L UN can finally (unlike the League of Nations), to use military force, the "peacekeepers", created in 1956 as part of peacekeeping missions: restoring (negotiations), maintenance (for interposition between belligerents) or peace building (post-conflict reconstruction), with the agreement of the parties without the right to use weapons. [...]
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