United States in the economy, globalization, Great Recession, globalization trade, Great Depression, Bretton Woods, US financial market, FED Federal Reserve System, monetary policy, foreign investment, multi-nationalization, transnationalization, American trade policy, US employment
Globalization is a contest content, it can have a negative view; responsible of outsourcing, massive unemployment (Europe), positive view; eliminate discrimination, global general culture, universalism. A complex reality, positive & negative sides.
Is a process of interaction and integration among; people, companies, government of different Nations (actors in the process). Integration; a more integrated world, interaction between 2 parts of the world. More integrated & interdependent.
A process driven by international trade, investment and capital flows; money is crossing borders, they have actually increased. Aided by progress in transportation, lower price, information technology and government policies (agents in the process).
[...] Who as an absolute advantage? China can produce 2 things .Prove event though China is more competitive, makes sense to trade with I bike with China receives trade equivalent of opportunity cost 2 shirts/5/3 shots 1 short China=2/3 bike Trade liberalization: # bilateral agreements- country to country drop to drop creating an advantageous agreement. U.S./Korean 2012 U.S./Columbia # regional agreements- among groups of neighboring countries, the European Union, NAFTA. # multilateral agreements Capital flows: commercial loans banks to companies, foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment on stock markets and official flows between banks, governments. [...]
[...] & TPP as containment? Cooperation: - US business interests and the chinese market - intra-firm trade - Obama and the « post-American world » (from G20 to G2) Competition: - China's military build-up and tensions in the Pacific - China's move up the value-chain and the risks of trade wars - currency wars, chinese accused of manipulation by the US & Europe - American's containment 3. Africa - limited trade flows with Africa of US imports and exports - oil dominates African reports 86% in 2013 - preferential tariffs under AGOA, African Growth and Opportunity Act, since 2000 - economic opportunities in Africa's emerging economies - growth presence of chinese FDI —> dramatic increase of FDI in Africa from from 2001-2012 - fisrt US-Africa summit in 2014 - renewal of AGOA in 2015 - toward a more differentiated approach to US trade policy in Africa? [...]
[...] From Multinational to Transnational Key notions: trans-nationalization proces, horizontal FDI, vertical FDI, Dot Com Crisis, UNCTAD report, portfolio investment, greenfield investment, equally paradox, decentralization process, corporate taxes Definition Economy scale and economy scope Multinationals are playing with different types of regulation, looking for a favorable, legal and deregulated fair world. US multinational maintain headquarters with a trader of inbound and outbound part of the trans- nationalization process. FDI is still dominated by the USA, ownership and control directly or indirectly by an individual person owned company . Horizontal FDI concerns the new establishment of similar goods to facilitate expansion. Vertical FDI, fragment the value and supply chain when subcontract and offshore. Use benefits from local advantages, a trend that is boosted from the cost of transportations, containerization, reduce costs. [...]
[...] A Central Bank regulates the exchange, make a decision of lower interest, to convince to spend or save. Support of GATT General Agreement and Trade 1947 - NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement 1994 - WTO World Trade Organization 1995 The return of depression Krugman Post WWII Lend Lease Act 1941, providing weapons, U.S. military aid for nations WWII. Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese 1941. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declare war on Japan. —-> Start the WWII for the USA 39-45 Bretton Woods July 1944, new post on economic order, the USA dominate Pax Americana. [...]
[...] - US trade with Nigeria is blocked, FDI is the first investor in this country. There are 2 american companies, in the Nigeria industry, reduce access on market, a crucial partner of crude oil production. - China is a bigger partner with of chinese companies in Nigeria, a main rival for the US. Philanthropy • List developed countries LDCs / US leadership • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The principles of charity come from private foundation, huge american brands. The entrepreneurs carries US image. [...]
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