Iran, geopolitics, Islamism, political Islam, Islam, Muslim, Islamic state, Islamic Law, Muslim Brothers, pan-Arabism, Islamic revolution, Iranian Revolution, Saudi Arabia, religious revolution, Islamic Republic, Islamic order, European law, Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq, Iran-Iraq war, religious ideology
Islam became more militant after the fall of the caliphate. From the beginning of the 1920s, the Syrian Rashid Rida (1865-1935) was the first to refer to the notion of the Islamic State (al-dawla islamiyya), but without proposing a systematic political program. The return to Islamic Law (Shari'a) became political : Islam had to be redefined as a system providing practical solutions, as Muslims should not be governed by European laws but by Islamic law in his view.
Islamism was first an intellectual controversy in the 1920s and progressively became a political militancy political activism in order to conquest power to establish an "Islamic order" i.e. an Islamic state (establishment of Islamic Law and Islamization of society). The Egyptian Hassan al Banna (1906-1949) organized a mass movement in the 1930s. Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) systematized the doctrine of Muslim Brothers.
[...] an Islamic state (establishment of Islamic Law and Islamization of society). The Egyptian Hassan al Banna (1906-1949) organized a mass movement in the 1930s. Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) systematized the doctrine of Muslim Brothers. Islamism: a social and political movement based on Islam. Besides being a religion, Islam is defined as a political ideology to fight colonialism and authoritarian regimes powerful mobilizing force as well as the basis of political and social action. New narrative, new political models and new political figures of activism (Bozarlan): more powerful, more effective and more radical. [...]
[...] At the same time, lay intellectuals such as Mehdi Bazargan and "Ali Shari'ati criticized the state policy in religious matters and also developed an alternative ideology to the politico-religious doctrine of Mohammad Rezâ Shâh and materialistic Marxism, based on Islam. Both of them studied in France where they discovered the power of ideology and its operational dimension as a source of social and political action. Shari'ati was the main ideologue of the Iranian revolution. Through a Marxist terminology, he revivified and modernized Shi'ism to make it actionable for a mass revolt. [...]
[...] 2. supervising the proper implementation of the general policies of the system; 3. issuing referendums; 4. commanding the armed forces; 5. declaring war, peace, and mobilizing forces; [ . ] the commander-in-chief of the Islamic Pasdaran Revolutionary Corps, the supreme commanders-in-chief of the security and armed forces; coordinating the relationship among the three branches [ . 9. [...]
[...] The goal was to create a solid network of non-Iranian agents in order to commit actions to send strong messages to Western countries (France and the United States) to dissuade them from supporting Iraq. Iranian Capitalization on War and Nation-Building War and Nationalism Political opportunity to straighten the national sentiment, national unity and a sentiment of common belonging through a common trauma Actualization of the Shi'i myth of resistance and martyrdom to reinforce the national myth/narrative The IR is consolidated as a state/somehow became a state. [...]
[...] 1925-1941): creation of Iran as a modern nation-state Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1941-1979): White Revolution in 1961 The Ideological Turn of the 1970s: Islamland the Utopia of Islamic State The World in the 1960-1970s: The Age of Ideologies Various demonstrations and uprisings occurred in the world by the end of the 60s fueled by Marxist and revolutionary ideologies in opposition to the bourgeois status quo as well as colonial and imperial worldview. The Non-Aligned Movement was founded in 1961 as a result of the Bandung Conference in 1955 in the context of the Cold War Various students' demonstrations and civil unrest in 1968 Idea of "historical cycle" (Bozarslan): evolution of dominant worldviews and philosophies of history that are a product of specific cultures and times Dominant worldview in the 1990s: democracy and human rights Main historical events: Fall of the USSR Fall of the Berlin Wall Advent of democratic regimes in Easter Europe End of the Cold War US hegemony (politically, economically, culturally) Theory of the "End of History" (Francis Fukuyama 1989; 1992) and the triumph of the Democratic model. [...]
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