"Penser et agir par nous-mêmes et pour nous-mêmes, en Nègres..., accéder à la modernité sans piétiner notre authenticité". That is how the famous thinker of the "Négritude", Leopold Sendar Senghor, described the challenge that fell on black people in the whole world at the dawn of the 21st century. If the 20th century had been the time of fights for liberty against oppressions of any kind, the next era should leave its mark as the time of recognition and respect. The new awareness concerning black people must be developed in two contradictory ways, considering them as a whole community that has taken its revenge on history, racism and murderous stupidity, as well as a kaleidoscope of unique, different and equal individuals who seek, like everybody else, identity and consideration. This unavoidable dialectic makes the demands of black people complex and latent, all the more so, since they concern people that have been suffering from uncountable oppression during history and that still know discriminations. They also arise in countries that have very different conceptions of their minorities, and history, traditions of political philosophy and the burden of the past are combined to create a national policy for black people
[...] Enquête sur les citoyens d'origine maghrébine, africaine et turque, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po 157pp, Chapter 7 : « Quelles identités ? [...]
[...] Boyer The Oxford Companion to United States History, Oxford UP 2001, p 359 Denis Lacorne, La crise de l'identité américaine, Paris, Fayard 1997, Chapitre II, page 54 See the sticking photographs of lynching collected by John Allen on http://withoutsanctuary.org (dernier accès le à 19h32) ) David Colbrun and George Pozzetta, "Race, ethncity and the Evolution of political legitimacy", in D. Farber (ed.) The Sixties. From Memory to history, Chapel Hill, The univ. of North Carolina Press 333pp, p David Colbrun and George Pozzetta, op cit, p 96 Pierre Bouretz, « Mieux que l'Amérique : une révolution parfaite ? », in M. [...]
[...] It seems that it is now between blacks and non- blacks in a country whose population is more and more highly intermixed and where non-whites will not be anymore members of minority groups in a few decades. African-Americans initiated the recognition of this inevitable trend; let's hope that it will not meet obstacles from now on. Conclusion The aim of our work was to assess and to understand the current situation of black people in the two most diverse countries in the world, considering different aspects of the presence of black communities within American and French societies. [...]
[...] 2°) When Nature recalls misery: African-Americans confronted to inequalities Equal opportunity without affirmative action 1°) France: the “taboo of origin” 2°) Affirmative action in the United States: the reparation of the past faults? IV] Current debates and prospects 2005: the sudden appearance of a black question in France. A complex issue merging history, identity and passions A brown America and a “moving colour line”? The specificity of African-Americans at stake Conclusion Introduction "Penser et agir par nous-mêmes et pour nous-mêmes, en Nègres accéder à la modernité sans piétiner notre authenticité". [...]
[...] The black slave trade toward the United States had lasted nearly 250 years, from 1585 to 1807, the majority of black people being brought in the 18th century, especially in the American South (Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama . After the outlawing of the Atlantic Slave Trade in the beginning of the 19th century, the transport of African natives to America lessened drastically but not totally. Indeed, some Southern slave states as Virginia provided slaves to other slave states, particularly the new states created with the American expansion westward. [...]
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