In punishment, as in all aspects of our world, there is always a goal to an action. For this topic there are not one but five different goals related to punishment and the correctional system of the U.S. and abroad. These goals have evolved over the centuries to fit the needs of society at the times and they include retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, incapacitation, and restorative justice. Retribution is the oldest form of punishment and is based on the idea that something is taken from the offender as a form of punishment and revenge for their crimes. Deterrence is based on the idea that punishing someone will deter them and others from committing future offenses.
Rehabilitation arose with the desire to treat individuals with decency and focuses on behavior and attitude modification so as to modify the criminal out of their personality. Incapacitation is the most successful proponent for imprisonment to date and began with the 1960 and 1970 get tough on crime ideology of the legislative and judicial branches. Restorative justice is the newest goal of punishment to date and consists of a unification of community, victim and offender working toward the common goal of healing and restoration to a pre-crime state.
[...] Retrieved January from Beyond Intractability: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi- essay/retributive-justice Vito, G. F. (1994). Chapter 3 Neoclassical Criminology. In G. F. Vito, Criminology: Theory, Research and Policy (pp. 55-56). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company. [...]
[...] (2008). Retrieved January from Sixth Form Law: http://sixthformlaw.info/01_modules/mod1/1_3_penal_system_1_principles/ 04_principles_deterrence.htm Bartollas, C. (2002). Chapter The Punishment of Offenders . In C. Bartollas, Invitation to Corrections: with Built-in Study Guide (pp. 71-77). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Braga, A. A. (2012, August). [...]
[...] Goals of punishment and their applications in corrections Goals of Punishment and Their Applications in Corrections In punishment, as in all aspects of our world, there is always a goal to an action. For this topic there are not one but five different goals related to punishment and the correctional system of the U.S. and abroad. These goals have evolved over the centuries to fit the needs of society at the times and they include retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, incapacitation, and restorative justice. [...]
[...] There is also great amount of evidence that claims this approach to punishment to be advantageous because it works. In writings by Sixth Form Law successes include, 1919 the police went on strike in Liverpool. With the chances of apprehension significantly reduced, the crime rate (especially looting of shops) escalated sharply” (Principles of Sentencing- Deterrence, 2008) and, “when the Nazis occupied Denmark in 1944 and arrested the entire police force; the general crime rate rose sharply and immediately”. (Principles of Sentencing-Deterrence, 2008). [...]
[...] Pulling Levers Focused Deterrence Strategies to Prevent Crime. Crime Prevention Research Review. Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of a Restorative Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved January from http://www.lawcom.govt.nz/sites/default/files/restorative_justice_frrtr j_pp_414-423.pdf Garland, D. (n.d.). The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Maiese, M. (2004, May). Retributive Justice. [...]
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