The Poor Law of 1601 was introduced as a response by the Government to rising levels of concern over how 'the poor' should be supported. As a result of several poor harvests, and soldiers returning from war there was increased vagrancy, which concerned the Government who were increasingly worried about the possibility of social disorder and revolt. Under The Poor Law of 160, each parish was made responsible for its own parishioners that were impoverished, frail or handicapped and in need of support. Each parish became obliged to relieve the old and the helpless, to provide work for those deemed capable but who were finding it difficult to find work in their usual trade. The parishes also became responsible for helping to support unprotected children, often by introducing them into apprenticeships at a young age. The funding for providing this was collected by a 'Parish Administrative Unit', which was responsible for collecting poor-rates from the other parishioners. This was a form of revised local tax which was means tested and calculated, collected and then allocated and distributed by unpaid Churchwardens or Parish Overseers (later known as Relieving Officers) who were elected by the parish vestry every year.There were two types of relief provided for the needy, 'outdoor relief' (through money, supplies of materials such as flax/ wool to provide a skill from which they could make money and work, or as basic foods such as bread) or 'indoor relief' (which included various form of institutional care).
[...] As a result of this, Health Authorities were replaced by over 300 Primary Care Trusts who were responsible for health promotion and illness prevention through integrating aspects of health and social care and to reduce inequalities new Strategic Health Authorities were created under the Department of Health and Modernisation Agency), to support the Primary Care Trusts (responsible for GP's, Walk-In centers etc) and Secondary Care Services (NHS Trusts, Care Trusts, Ambulance Trusts etc) in their area with the NHS Plan and to monitor all other local health agencies, creating a single structure where all l NHS organizations are accountable to a Strategic Health Authority. [...]
[...] The conditions within workhouses were to change also under the ‘Principle of Less Eligibility', introduced as a means of social control aiming to reduce the desirability of claiming state welfare (as it was seen as affecting the work ethics and people's independence). The conditions in a workhouse in terms of diet and living conditions would at all times be maintained at a lower level than those of the lowest independent worker, so that entering a workhouse was only preferable to starving to death. [...]
[...] Their report, Costs of the NHS' (1956) highlighted the need for GP's and Hospitals to work closer together so more people can receive care in home (less expensive), that the elderly should be dared for where possible at home also and that preventing illness should maintain a priority, but fundamentally that the given the circumstances the NHS was providing the best service possible and should continue along the same lines. During the 1960's a number of reports were published, looking at various aspects of how the NHS was structured organised and run. [...]
[...] This money will benefit not only the mother (with living expenses), but will also indirectly have a strong impact on the child, as this money is designed in part to help provide mothers with additional money to buy nutritious and appropriate foods during pregnancy which directly affects the health of the child when it is born. Pressure groups however again claim that financial support during pregnancy is still insufficient. The Government also offers benefits for parents who are adopting a child, with those people now eligible for the £500 SSMG and Statutory Adoption Pay. [...]
[...] The newly appointed Conservative government continued to plan the reorganisation and the 1973 National Health Service Act started the first major reorganisation of the NHS although it did not come into practice until 1 April 1974. The main aims of the reorganisation were to unify health services under one authority (away from the previous 3 branch management structure), to coordinate health and social provision from the government by creating joint consultative committees, and to improve general management. Under the new Act Regional Health Authorities (in theory covering all 3 ‘arms') were created in England to plan local health services and replace Regional Hospital Boards. [...]
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