Interest in biodiversity began in the mid-1980s with the Biodiversity Symposium, held in Washington, DC, sponsored by the National Academy of Science. Within increasing human populations and rising demands for resources and living space, the need to conserve biological diversity rose to the forefront with the development of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992. The purpose of the Convention is to conserve biological diversity, promote the sustainable use of its components, and encourage equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. Biodiversity inventories provide the building blocks upon which to carry out the intent of CBD and to meet local needs. Using inventories as the base, industry and other development opportunities should incorporate biodiversity within their management practices.
[...] Forest certiﬁcation systems resulting from agreements in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Agenda 21, include criteria, indicators, or principles that address biodiversity as a critical component to sustainable development. In order to meet the above requirements, parties need inventories of biological diversity. The objectives of biological diversity inventories may be to: * Identify priority conservation areas * Provide the necessary baseline data for monitoring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance or climate change on the biota * Detect changes in ecological diversity that exceed the range of natural variation, across a range of spatial and temporal scales * Provide an ‘early warning' of impending irreversible changes * Provide reports to the public on the status of ecological diversity in a timely and accessible manner * Meet national and international commitments for monitoring biodiversity * Provide data consistent with the requirements of forest certiﬁcation programs. [...]
[...] The following options for indicators are in order of preference Best estimates: using genealogy to predict genetic or character richness Popular estimates: using species richness Practical estimates: using higher taxa or environmental variables as surrogates Relationship among estimates: a scale of surrogacy for mapping more of biodiversity value at lower cost. To be effective, indicators should be: * Readily quantiﬁable * Easily assessed in the ﬁeld * Repeatable and subject to minimal observer bias, and cost-effective * Ecologically meaningful that is, to be representative of the taxic variation, microhabitats, and trophic diversity in the area and in close association with, and identiﬁcation of, the conditions and responses of other species. [...]
[...] Where possible and feasible, these inventories should be incorporated within existing resource management inventories such as forest surveys by adding new variables to be collected in the ﬁeld such as: * Characteristics of habitats (springs, moist land, land with a high biological value) * Characteristics of forest/vegetation margins (length, form, and structure) * Description of vegetation in the grass, shrub, and tree strata * Effects of other uses of the land (agriculture) * Geohydrological features: surface and subsurface water resources * Land-use history and changes over time (grazing, agriculture, special practices) * Quantities and dimensions of standing and fallen dead trees, and of rotten trees, and the extent of such rot * Soil and the land form/geological features, including variables subject to change over time * Remarkable vegetation from the viewpoint of their phenotype. Such additions to ongoing natural resource inventories may effectively improve our knowledge of the biological resources with minimum effort. SUMMAR Interest in biodiversity began in the mid-1980s with the Biodiversity Symposium, held in Washington, DC, sponsored by the National Academy of Science. Within increasing human populations [...]
[...] The advantages of mist-nets are that: * Relatively little training is necessary to set up the nets and collect the birds * Identiﬁcation tools may be used with birds in hand * The method does not require vocalization knowledge * The repeatability and accuracy of the data collected are high * Data can be collected on the physical condition of the birds * Recapture provides demographic data * Secretive and inconspicuous species may be detected. Vocalizations and observations are used in point counts and transects. [...]
[...] Taxonomic surveys are undertaken to locate and document occurrences of particular species, in other words, what species exist in forest A. The primary goal of surveying the ﬂora and fauna is to develop a list of the different species that are present on the site and not necessarily their numbers and condition. The data gathered are used to identify new occurrences of sensitive species, monitoring endangered populations, evaluating conservation priorities of an area, and bioprospecting. Sampling should take place in both undisturbed and disturbed areas. [...]
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