Ground preparation is deﬁned as the set of preliminary operations on soil that are required for effective establishment of tree seedlings. The main objective of ground preparation is to assure access to nutrients, air, and water for the seedlings to be planted. Ground preparation is more focused in soil treatment for plant establishment, considering the simple meaning of ground as ?solid surface of the earth' or ?the upper soil.' Site preparation may be understood as a wider concept referring to a modiﬁcation of the surrounding environment for plant establishment. In this sense, site preparation may include operations prior to ground preparation. Thus, site preparation includes clearing, soil cultivation, and also protection operations, such as management of pre-existing vegetation especially weeds, fencing and other animal control systems, protection of plants against frost and wind, etc.
[...] Subsoil plows are designed to provide full ground preparation treatment in hilly areas worldwide. Subsoil plows are designed for areas where the dozers available are lower in horsepower. More maneuver-able than a heavy trailing unit, subsoil plows are very rugged machines designed for use with 225–350HP dozers. The design may include a heavy-duty coulter and swept- back tine, and a choice of two or four disks. Subsoil plows may have the ripper shank and the disk body both in the swiveling frame, for high maneuver- ability on sloping ground. [...]
[...] Water harvesting should gain massive adoption in the near future because of the excellent results obtained in the afforestation of areas with rainfall as low as 80mm year. Most harvesting systems are designed for ﬂat areas. Nevertheless, higher steep slopes also may be treated with the systems for water collection. There are many water harvesting systems that can be applied for improving forest plantations. For example, microcatchments or ‘negarims,' contour bunds, contour stone bunds, semicircular bunds, individual terraces, ‘limans,' ‘kasukas,' permeable rock dams, subsurface dams, and others. [...]
[...] Cultivation Cultivation is carried out to improve soil physical conditions, to allow improved root growth and therefore tree anchorage, to improve root access to soil nutrients and moisture, and to improve the quality of planting. Also, cultivation removes competing weeds, thereby improving moisture and nutrient availability to planted seedlings; and it provides a surface to which herbicides can be effectively applied. It is important to determine the optimum technique for ground preparation in any particular ﬁeld condition. A stability of cost to effectiveness must be achieved; on some sites, e.g. [...]
[...] Further progress in forestry may be supported by information systems about the results of different treatments for ground preparation under speciﬁc ﬁeld conditions. SUMMARY Ground preparation is deﬁned as the set of preliminary operations on soil that are required for effective establishment of tree seedlings. The main objective of ground preparation is to assure access to nutrients, air, and water for the seedlings to be planted. Ground preparation is more focused in soil treatment for plant establishment, considering the simple meaning of ground as ‘solid surface of the earth' or upper soil.' Clearing is an important preliminary matter [...]
[...] Farmers should be aware that preparation equipment can be very speciﬁc where heavy work is required; in such a case special care must be taken to minimize erosion. Soil cultivation should be contoured on all soils of high or very high erosion class such as silty or granitic soils, and on slopes greater that 15% for the moderate to high erosion class. All cultivation must avoid disturbing ﬂowlines. In areas of very high rainfall cultivation may be undesirable for some moderate and moderate to high erosion class soils above 15% slope. [...]
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