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Tutorials/exercises in Biology

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01 Apr 2009

Determination of various protein concentrations by means of spectrophotometry

Tutorials/exercises - 11 pages - Biology

Spectrophotometry relies on the varying capabilities of molecules to absorb photons of light. This absorbance is characteristic of specific compounds, and can therefore be utilized to quantify and classify the presence/quantities of various compounds. (Harris, 2007) With the use of standard...

25 Jul 2008

Unilateral lesions of the Nigrostriatal pathway

Tutorials/exercises - 20 pages - Biology

The nigrostriatal system through the basal ganglia is essential for regulating motor movement. Normal motor behavior requires a delicate balance between the excitatory direct pathway and the inhibitory indirect pathway modulated by the D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Unilateral...

09 Apr 2008

Skeletal Radiology and Bone Growth

Tutorials/exercises - 4 pages - Biology

Radiographic examination is the key to the diagnosis of many skeletal abnormalities. It is essential that each bone be examined in its entirety, including the cortex, medullary canal (cancellous bone or spongiosa), and articular ends. The position and alignment of joints are determined. In...

09 Feb 2008

Novel pressure-relief wheelchair: research paper

Tutorials/exercises - 30 pages - Biology

Pressure sores are painful and debilitating tissue wounds which commonly affect wheelchair users. Current treatment of pressure sores requires bed-rest for up to sixteen weeks, which is unacceptable for patients with active life-styles. The purpose of our project is to design a wheelchair...

17 Dec 2007

Effects of Road Salt on Germination and Growth

Tutorials/exercises - 11 pages - Biology

This report examined the effects of road salt in relation to growth and germination in the Brassica rapa, a common turnup flower. The initial questions considered if the salt would actually affect the growth. There were four groups of plants which were collected. The groups included a control...

26 Nov 2007

Venomous Snakes

Tutorials/exercises - 4 pages - Biology

The term pit viper comes from the presence of paired, highly sensitive, thermoreceptor organs (pits) present on the forward portion of these snakes' heads. These structures, also known as foveal organs, serve the snake in locating prey, aiming strikes, and adjusting venom dose. The foveal...

26 Nov 2007

Intraneuronal Signaling Pathways

Tutorials/exercises - 7 pages - Biology

Prior to delineating the organization of specific intraneuronal signaling pathways, it is important to consider, in general terms, their role in helping neurons interpret and respond to the barrage of afferent stimulation impinging on them continuously. From an evolutionary perspective, second...

26 Nov 2007

Ion Channels

Tutorials/exercises - 6 pages - Biology

Structure and Function of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels Voltage-gated ion channels allow the flow of ions in response to changes in membrane voltage and are key elements in neuronal excitation and inhibition. Although ion channels can usually pass more than a single type of ion, voltage-gated...

26 Nov 2007

Neurotransmitter and Ion Channels

Tutorials/exercises - 3 pages - Biology

Classes of Neurotransmitters Much of the information transfer between neurons in the CNS occurs via chemical synapses. These synapses use a variety of messengers (neurotransmitters) that are released in a Ca2+-dependent fashion from presynaptic terminals and act on specific protein receptors to...

26 Nov 2007

Sybaptic Plasticity

Tutorials/exercises - 4 pages - Biology

In its simplest form, the postsynaptic response to neurotransmitter release can be mediated by a single protein complex. For example, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are self-contained stimulus-response modules that both detect a stimulus, acetylcholine, and generate a response, passage of ion...

26 Nov 2007

Principles of Cellular Electrophysiology

Tutorials/exercises - 3 pages - Biology

Resting Membrane Potential In nerve cells, potassium ions (K+) are at higher concentration inside the membrane than outside whereas the opposite is true for sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), and chloride (Cl-) ions (Fig. 1.9-1). The bulk solutions on either side of the membrane are electrically...

26 Nov 2007

Receptors and Second Messengers

Tutorials/exercises - 11 pages - Biology

Neuropeptide receptors have undergone the same process of discovery and characterization that receptors for other neurotransmitters have enjoyed. The process begins with the pharmacological characterization of the receptor's physicochemical binding properties by assessing the affinity of...

26 Nov 2007

Neuropeptides: Biology and Regulation

Tutorials/exercises - 7 pages - Biology

The past several decades have witnessed a veritable explosion of knowledge about the central nervous system (CNS), and in no area has this been as impressive as in peptide neurobiology. Numerous peptide neurotransmitter candidates have been identified and characterized, their CNS...

20 Nov 2007

Mites

Tutorials/exercises - 4 pages - Biology

Mites make up the largest group in the class Arachnida. Most are small arthropods, and many are barely visible. Mites have two body regions, a small cephalothorax and a larger, unsegmented abdomen. The cephalothorax and abdomen are broadly joined, giving most mites an oblong to globular...

20 Nov 2007

Lice

Tutorials/exercises - 2 pages - Biology

Lice are small wingless insects that are ectoparasites of mammals. They are mostly host specific, and two species are human parasites: Pthirus pubis (pubic louse) and Pediculus humanus, with two varieties, P. h. capitis (head louse) and P. h. corporis (body louse). They are obligatory parasites,...

20 Nov 2007

Venomous Species and Venoms

Tutorials/exercises - 2 pages - Biology

Insects of the order Lepidoptera typically cause human envenomation, but effects generally are less serious than with hymenopterans. Injury usually follows contact with caterpillars, occurring less frequently with the cocoon or adult stage. The larval lepidopteran (caterpillar) is usually free...

20 Nov 2007

Diptera: Two-winged flies

Tutorials/exercises - 5 pages - Biology

Insects of the order Diptera are characterized by one pair of wings. The second pair is usually modified to form a pair of drumsticklike structures known as halteres. A typical life cycle consists of eggs, limbless larvae, pupae, and winged adults, but numerous variations exist....

19 Nov 2007

Scorpion Envenomation

Tutorials/exercises - 2 pages - Biology

Scorpion envenomation can result in distinct clinical syndromes. Most scorpion species' stings cause only local pain and inflammation that respond well to minimal supportive therapy and wound care. These scorpions pose no significant management issues and, with few exceptions, are not...

19 Nov 2007

North American Venomous Reptile Bites

Tutorials/exercises - 2 pages - Biology

North America is unique in that it is home not only to venomous snakes, but also to the world's only known venomous lizards. Fortunately, bites by venomous reptiles in North America are relatively uncommon, although precise statistics are not available. The only systematic attempt to evaluate...

19 Nov 2007

North American Arthropod Envenomation and Parasitism

Tutorials/exercises - 2 pages - Biology

The phylum Arthropoda contains about four fifths of the known animals of the world, and insects are the largest group of arthropods. Insects are an important part of the biota of all terrestrial and freshwater environments that support life; only in marine environments are they relatively...

13 Nov 2007

Mushroom Toxicity

Tutorials/exercises - 3 pages - Biology

Mushrooms are often considered the vermin of the vegetable world, likened to snakes, slugs, and worms. Some are regarded as mystical and others as delicacies. The location of tasty morels is passed from generation to generation, closely guarded from strangers. Each autumn and spring, foragers...

13 Nov 2007

Toxic Plant Ingestions

Tutorials/exercises - 6 pages - Biology

Plants have served as both poisons and medicines. Dioscorides listed several hundred plant species in his first Materia Medica in 78 BC. Galen, in second-century Rome, catalogued plants, including those containing opiates, ergotamines, and other alkaloids. Pharmacognosy was established as an...

13 Nov 2007

The Effect of Ampicillin Amounts and Incubation Time on E. Coli Growth

Tutorials/exercises - 5 pages - Biology

Penicillin, derived from the soil mold Penicillium, was the primary antibiotic used to cure bacterial infections after being discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Briefly following its discovery and mass production bacteria began expressing resistance to this Nobel Prize winning medical...

23 Oct 2007

Bear Attacks

Tutorials/exercises - 5 pages - Biology

Bears are one of the most widely distributed animals in the world. At least one of the eight bear species currently exists in Asia, Europe, North and South America, and the Arctic. Bears in Africa became extinct several million years ago. Australia and Antarctica are the only continents where...