Immunology is a subject, which deals with immune system and immune reactions in our body. Immune system works by the principle of learning process. When a pathogen attacks for the first time, it leads to infection, but when it attacks for the second then our body's immune system recognizes and produces suitable complimentary antibodies against it. This is known as Immune Response. Immune response is possible due to the presence of immune memory. Immune memory is a part of immune system in which our immune system remembers the infection-causing organism and responds quickly when attacked by that particular organism.
Immune response can be divided into two divisions:
Our environment has millions of infectious organisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa e.t.c. Our body produces certain complimentary antibody against these infectious organisms.
[...] HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Immunology was first introduced as a branch of microbiology concerned with the study of immunity of infection. Immunology was started in 1798 with Jenner's study of vaccination against smallpox. However, as early as 1000 A.D Chinese physician Yo Meishan successfully inoculated the Emperor's grandson with dried crust of smallpox to render his immune from a serious attack of the dreadful disease. Subsequently, this practice spread to other countries. Lady Mary Wortley Montague of British ambassador to Turkey introduced it into England. [...]
[...] Antigens posses a number of small chemical groups that are called antigenic determinants or epitopes that can bind specifically to an antigen-binding site (paratopes) of the antibody molecule and T-cell receptors. A view of antigens under microscope Types of antigens in bacteria, virus, and protozoon's A. INCOMPLETE ANTIGEN OR HAPTEN: This is a chemical substance of low molecular weight that cannot induce an immune response by itself. Nevertheless, haptens can induce a response if combined with large molecules (proteins, which serves as carriers) and with the assistance from T-helper and lymphocytes. [...]
[...] REQUIREMENTS: Conical flasks, test tubes, glass plates acryl amide, small pore buffer, APS, Tris buffer, TEMED, Gel loading dye, staining solution, distaining solution, methanol, grease, distilled water, phalcon tubes, append off vials, filter paper, spacers, plastic clips, comb, tissue paper, micropipettes with tips, gel rocker. PROCEDURE: Clean the glass plates using methanol to make it grease free. Take three spacers of equal length and width, clean them using methanol. Air dry and apply grease on all sides. Keep the glass plates on a flat surface and place the spacers on all the three sides except on top. Keep the notched glass plates over the spacers that are, placed on the plain glass plate. Using plastic clips clamp [...]
[...] However, if a person is categorized as blood group ‘O' he contains ‘a' as well as ‘b' isoantibodies, but the RBC cells of this person lack antigens on the surface. Hence to determine blood grouping antigen-antibody agglutination process is made use off. PRINCIPLE Agglutination between antigen and antibody is observed if the antigen is recognized by the antibodies. The grouping of blood is referred to as O system of classification and the factor D involved is to categorize the RH factor of an individual. [...]
[...] The somatic anti salmonella antibodies and the rheumatoid factors are also IgM type. IMMUNOGLOBULIN-D It has a molecular weight of 180000. On electrophoresis it is a fast moving gamma globulin. Half- life is 2.8 days. It is relatively more liable to degradation by heat and proteolytic enzymes. Antibodies to certain antigens: Penicillin, Insulin, Milk protein, Diphtheria toxoid, nuclear antigen and Thyroid antigen have been reported of IgD type. These are normally found on the membranes of many circulating beta Lymphocytes. [...]
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